In 512, use Stokes theorem to evaluate C F d r. Assume C is oriented counterclockwise as viewed from above.

BIOB260:CellularandMolecularBiology Week1 CellularEnergetics ImportantConcepts 1. Howenergeticallyunfavorablereactionsproceed 2. Reactioncoupling 3. RoleofATP/othercarriermolecules 4. Metaboliccomplexityofthecell Importantconceptsexplained 1. Energeticallyunfavorablereactions Somereactionshavea+∆Gwhichmakesthemalmostneveroccurunlesstheyhave anotherdrivingforce.Trytoimaginealargerock.Itwillfalldownahilleasily,butthe rockwillnevergobackupthehillunlesssomeonecarriesitoranotherexternalforce pushesitbackup.Energeticallyunfavorablereactionsarejustlikethis.Theytogetthese reactionstogoourcellsusereactioncoupling(explainedinsection2).So