(a) Calculate the energies of an electron in the hydrogen atom for and for . How much energy does it require to move the electron out of the atom completely (from to ), according to Bohr? Put your answer in .(b) The energy for the process energy is called the ionization energy of hydrogen. The experimentally determined value for the ionization energy of hydrogen is . How does this compare to your calculation?
John Milton’s Paradise Lost Felix Culpa – the Fortunate Fall 1 Style Rhyme: “Suborned” (361) and “warned” (363) “eat” (781) and “seat” (782) – at the fall 2 Separation of Work (book 9, lines 205) Relation to sin The wild garden growth is “wanton” and thus must be tamed/pruned back Before and after the fall Before the fall, work was a pleasant experience Afterwards, it was traditional burdensome punishment Eve’s Opinion It makes sense because working together is distracting People must earn the right to rest through working “and th’hour of supper comes unearned” (225) There is a need to be perfect one one’s own “single with like defense” (325) Adam’s Protest Being together is fine because work in general is not very productive (garden is disordered the next morning) Work is more dangerous alone (vulnerability) Eve’s role is to domestically serve her husband “In woman, than to study household good” (233) It’s one’s DECISION to work 3. Relationship Between Reason and Love Love is an extension of reason (according to Adam before the fall) Once passion is in control (after the fall), there is disgrace Love is an extension of free will Godlike (from book 3): stay only if you choose: “Go; for thy stay, not free” (book 9, line 372) 4. Sources of Evil Need to allow temptation (inner) “Secure from outward force; within himself / The danger lies, yet lies within his power” (348349) 5 Satan’s Rhetoric Analogous with Eve’s (whereas Adam’s is analogous with God’s) “fondly overcome with female charm” (999) Flatters Eve Singularity (vs. Adam’s other half) and superiority (as Godlike) Famous – as though Petrarchan love poetry Logical Movement from different hierarchies of knowledge a. Snake (beast) humankind b. Human Godlike c. Reason is made by God, BUT like humankind, it’s not infallible: (Desire to be superior to Adam makes knowledge dangerous) 6 Eve’s Lack of Agency Doesn’t receive punishment/fall until he falls Always compared in terms of Adam as his other half/made from him Forced into heaven practically She appears to need his reason (wanton hair, etc.) Dependent/Full of Delusions Desires to tell Adam about the fruit: vanity (to be a God), jealousy (of another Eve), and sees is falsely as an act of love Johnathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels 1 Swift’s Beliefs People are capable of reason, but not guided by reason. All people (including women) have a right to a quality education 2 Background: 18 Century England Rapid urbanization London population increase Rising literacy rates especially among women, middleclass reading public Creation of a literacy marketplace/professionalism of writing “popular literature” 1 copyright law Dominance of prose, serial publications, rise of the novel, travel narratives Serialization: more economically beneficial Political: constitutional monarchy 3 Houyhnhnms (horses) Guiding principle: reason: “As these noble…” (2615) Free from wrongdoing such as crime and lying a. Not like descriptions of lawyers (of Gulliver’s society): “I said there was a society” (2605). Free from attachment to others b. “friendship…” (2615) BUT Racism/bias c. Justifiable – depicting futility of equality (versus equal opportunity) d. Satire – England’s racist social conventions (race) e. “He made me observe . . . monstrous and unnatural” (2608). Utopian society Lack of books lack of opinion conversation and debate war and disagreement a. With the exception of the debates of whether to kill the Houyhnhnms Selfless guided by common good Justification for hating Yahoos (and war, potentially) “I was going on to . . . but more distorted” (2603) 4 Yahoos (humans) Guiding principle: passions (such as appetite, will, and desire) Dystopian society Selfish Because humankind is innately selfish, even if they don’t realize it a. “He was the more confirmed. . . “ (2610). Trade shows waste and vanity b. “conveniences. I assured him, that this whole…” (2605). 5. War: religion and politics Background Test Act: people are not allowed to hold military or civil office holding unless they swear allegiance to the Anglican church and disavow transubstantiation Text “He asked me what were the usual . . . things indifferent” (26012602). a. Indifference to difference with such religious customs There is not justifiable war.