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The Wave Nature of Light (Section)List the following types

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 16E Chapter 6

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 16E

The Wave Nature of Light (Section)

List the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength:

(a) the gamma rays produced by a radioactive nuclide used in medical imaging; (b) radiation from an FM radio station at 93.1 MHz on the dial;

(c) a radio signal from an AM radio station at 680 kHz on the dial;

(d) the yellow light from sodium vapor streetlights;

(e) the red light of a light-emitting diode, such as in a calculator display.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Exam3Review(AlltheNotes) TheShoulderComplex ShoulderGirdle Havefourarticulations: • Sternoclavicular • Acromioclavicular • Coracoclavicular • Scapulothoracic Sternoclavicular(SC)Articulation Articulationbetweenthesternumandclavicle – Ball-and-socketjoint – Freelymobileinfrontalandtransverseplane – Limitedsagittalmovement Siteofmostmovementofshouldergirdle – Elevation:depression(shruggingshoulders,60°) – Protraction:retraction(rowing,30°) – Anterior:posteriorrotation(raisingyourhand,30-45°) Ligamentoussupport – Anteriorsternoclavicularligament – Posteriorsternoclavicularligament – Costoclavicular&interclavicularligaments Anterior Posterior Acromioclavicular(AC)Articulation Articulationbetweentheacromionprocessanddistalendofclavicle Motionmostnoticeableduringarmelevation(shoulderabduction) Ligamentoussupport – Superioracromioclavicularligament – Inferioracromioclavicularligament – Coracoacromialligament Coracoclavicular(CC)Articulation Articulationbetweencoracoidprocessofscapulaandclavicle AssistsinreinforcementoftheweakACarticulation Ligamentoussupport – Coracoclavicularligaments i.e.,conoid&trapezoid ScapulothoracicArticulation • “articulation”betweentheanteriorsurfaceofthescapula(scapularfossa) andthethoracicwall – supporteddynamicallybymuscles – noligamentoussupport • actstostabilizeshoulderregionduringlifting(shrugging)-e.g.pickingupa suitcase • facilitatesoverheadmovementsthroughelevationandupwardrotationof theglenohumeraljoint Clavicle • Roles: – Helpsfacilitatescapularmotion – Siteofmuscularattachment – Providesabarriertoprotectunderlyingstructures – Actsstruttostabilizetheshoulderandpreventmedialdisplacement whenthemusclescontract – Preventsaninferiormigrationoftheshouldergirdle. Scapula Primaryfunctionistoprovidemuscleattachmentsitesforshouldermuscles. ShoulderGirdleMovements Abduction(protraction) scapulamoveslaterallyawayfromspinalcolumn Adduction(retraction) scapulamovesmediallytowardspinalcolumn Downwardrotation returninginferiorangleinferomedially Upwardrotation towardspinalcolumn&glenoidfossato turningglenoidfossaupward&moving normalposition inferioranglesuperolaterallyawayfrom spinalcolumn Elevation upwardorsuperiormovement Depression i.e.,shruggingshoulders downwardorinferiormovement i.e.,returningtonormalposition • Shouldergirdlemuscles – Stabilizescapula • maintainscapulainarelativelystaticpositionduringshoulder jointactions • Providestablebaseforshouldermusclestomovehumerus – Moveshouldergirdle • enhancemovementofupperextremitywhenshouldergoes throughextremerangesofmotion • Synergywithmusclesofglenohumeraljoint – Attheextremerangesofmotion: • Scapularmusclesmoveshouldergirdletopositionglenoid fossa • Allowshumerusmoremobility – Withouttheaccompanyingscapulamovementhumeruscanonlybe o raisedintoapproximately90 oftotalshoulderabduction&flexion. – Synergybetweenscapula&shoulderjointmusclesenhances movementofentireupperextremity ScapulohumeralRhythm scapularrotationtofacilitateshoulderabduction 1st30 ofabduction littlescapularrotation e.g.,shoulder=30 ,scapula≈6 o beyond30 o forevery2 ofshouldermovement,scapularotates1 o 2:1ratio FivePrimaryMuscleInvolvedinShoulderGirdleMovement 1. levatorscapulae 2. trapezius 3. rhomboids 4. serratusanterior 5. pectoralisminor ShoulderGirdleMuscles Rhomboids Rhomboids Trapezius Trapezius Levator Levator Scapulae Scapulae Trapezius Pectoralis Minor SerratusAnterior PectoralisMinor Rhomboids PectoralisMinor Trapezius LevatorScapulae SerratusAnterior Trapeziusmuscle Upperfibers: elevation upwardrotation Middlefibers: elevation retraction Lowerfibers: depression upwardrotation retraction Levatorscapulaemuscle elevation downwardrotation Rhomboidmuscles-major&minor retraction elevation downwardrotation PectoralisMinorMuscle depression protraction downwardrotation SerratusAnteriorMuscle SubclaviusMuscle protraction Stabilization&protectionofSCjoint upwardrotation depression protraction ScapulaProtraction(abduction) Scapulamovinglaterallyawayfromspinousprocesseswithoutrotation e.g.,Push-up&benchpress(upwardphase) Agonists ScapulaRetraction(adduction) Pectoralisminor Serratusanterior Scapulamovingmedialtowardthespinousprocesseswithoutrotation(i.e,return fromabduction) Agonists e.g.,rowing Middletrapezius Rhomboids ScapulaUpwardRotation Lateral&upwardmovement e.g.,reachingarmoverhead ScapulaDownwardRotation Downward&MedialMovement GlenoidFossaisrotateddownwardwhendownwardmovementofshoulderjoint occurs Agonists e.g.,latpulldowns Pectoralisminor ScapulaElevation Rhomboid Superiormovementofthescapulawithoutrotation e.g.,Shouldershrugs Agonists Rhomboid Levatorscapula Uppertrapezius ScapulaDepression Inferiormovementofthescapulawithoutrotation Agonists Lowertrapezius Pectoralisminor ShoulderJoint Glenohumeral(GH)articulation – Articulationofthehumerusandglenoidfossa – Designedformobility(Mostmobileinbody) – Lacksbonyandligamentoussupport – Shallowglenoidfossa – Half-sphericalhumeralhead • Widerangeofmotionoftheshoulderjointinmanydifferentplanesrequires asignificantamountoflaxity • Commontohaveinstabilityproblems – Rotatorcuffimpingement – Subluxations&dislocations • Thepriceofmobilityisreducedstability • Themoremobileajointis,thelessstableitis&themorestableitis,theless mobile StabilityofGH – Passive,Staticstabilizers- • articularsurface,glenoidlabrum,jointcapsuleandligaments. – Fullysealed,whichprovidessuctionandresistsadislocatingforceat lowerloads. – Dynamicsupport • occursmostlyatmidrangeofmotionandisprovidedbythe musclesastheycontractinacoordinatedpatterntocompress thehumeralheadintheglenoidcavity. – PosteriorStability • Theposteriorrotatorcuffmuscles – AnteriorStability • Subscapularis • Longheadofthebiceps(superiorhumeralheadtranslation) – TheDeltoidandtheotherscapulothoracicmusclespositionthe scapulatoprovidemaximumGHstability. Supportingstructuresforshoulder Glenoidfossais¼-⅓sizeofhumeralhead Glenoidlabrum – Lipofcartilagesurroundingthejoint – Increaseswidthanddepthoffossa – Assistsinholdingthehumerusinplace Coracohumeralligament – Stabilizesthehumerusagainstsuperiorandlateraldisplacement Glenohumeralligament – Stabilizesthehumerusagainstanteriordisplacement – Superior – Middle – Inferior ShoulderJointMovements Abduction Adduction superior&lateral inferior&medial movementofhumerus movementofhumerus awayfrombody Extension towardbody movementofhumerus straightposteriorly Horizontaladduction Flexion aka-transverseflexion movementofhumerus movementofhumerusin straightanteriorly transverseplanetoward&across chest Horizontalabduction aka-transverseextension movementofhumerusintransverseplane awayfromchest Internal(medial)rotation movementofhumerus External(lateral)rotation mediallyarounditslongaxis movementofhumeruslaterally arounditslongaxisawayfrommidline towardmidline ShoulderJoint ShoulderGirdle Abduction Upwardrotation Adduction DownwardRotation Flexion Elevations&UpwardRotation Extension Depression&DownwardsRotation InternalRotation Protraction ExternalRotation Retraction HorizontalAdduction Protraction HorizontalAbduction Retraction Glenohumeralinternalrotationdeficit(GIRD) – differenceininternalrotationrangeofmotionbetweenan individual’sthrowing&nonthrowingshoulders – overheadathleteswithaGIRDofgreaterthan20%hadahigherrisk ofinjury – stretchingexercisesrecommendedto regaininternalrotation • improveperformance • reducelikelihoodofinjury MusclesthatAttachorCrosstheGlenohumeral 1. Deltoid 2. Coracobrachialis 3. Teresmajor 4. Subscapularis 5. Supraspinatus 6. Infraspinatus 7. Teresminor 8. latissimusdorsi 9. pectoralismajor RotatorCuffMuscles Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teresminor Subscapularis Deltoid CoracobrachialisMuscle Posteriorfibers: abduction horizontaladduction flexion extension adduction horizontalabduction externalrotation TeresMajorMuscle internalrotation extension adduction Latissimusdorsi’s“littlehelper” Onlyeffectivewhenrhomboidsstabilizescapula PectoralisMajorMuscle Clavicularhead: Sternalhead: flexion(upto60 )o extension horizontaladduction horizontaladduction internalrotation internalrotation adduction(<90 ) o adduction abduction(>90 ) o LatissimusDorsiMuscle adduction extension internalrotation horizontalabduction downwardrotationofthescapula GlenohumeralFlexion Agonists Anteriordeltoid Pectoralismajor(clavicularhead) GlenohumeralExtension Agonists Teresmajor Latissimusdorsi Pectoralismajor(sternalhead) Deltoid GlenohumeralAbduction Agonists Deltoid Supraspinatus Pectoralismajor(clavicularhead) GlenohumeralAdduction Agonists Latissimusdorsi Teresmajor Pectoralismajor(sternalhead) GlenohumeralInternalRotation Agonists Latissimusdorsi Teresmajor Subscapularis Pectoralismajor(sternalhead) GlenohumeralExternalRotation Agonists Infraspinatus Teresminor GlenohumeralHorizontalAbduction Agonists Posteriordeltoid Infraspinatus Teresminor GlenohumeralHorizontalAdduction Agonists Anteriordeltoid Pectoralismajor Coracobrachialis ElbowComplex Distalhumerus Medialepicondyle • Attachmentsitefor: Olecranonfossa Jointcapsule • Deepdepressiononposteriorsurface ofdistalhumerus Ulnarcollateralligament Superficialflexormusclesoftheforearm...

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Chapter 6, Problem 16E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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The Wave Nature of Light (Section)List the following types