The First Law of Thermodynamics (Section)
Indicate which of the following is independent of the path by which a change occurs: (a) the change in potential energy when a book is transferred from table to shelf, (b) the heat evolved when a cube of sugar is oxidized to CO2(g) and H2O(g), (c) the work accomplished in burning a gallon of gasoline.
COMM210 Week 12 Persuasive Speech (Logos) Types of Fallacies Definitions Appeals ______________________________________________________________________________ 1) Aristotle: ethos, pathos, logos 2) What is a Fallacy: a) A believable arguments or premises that are based on invalid reasoning b) Not necessarily false, but the process of inference is invalid c) (Politics, advertisements, interpersonal speeches) 3) Post Hoc a) “after this, therefore, because of this” / A occurs before B; therefore, A is the cause of B 4) Non Sequitur a) “it does not follow”, stating a conclusion based on something that doesn’t strictly follow from the claim b) “Racism is wrong; therefore we need affirmative action” WRONG i) “Racism is common. Affirmative action would reduce racism. There are no superior alternatives to affirmative action” RIGHT 5) Ad Hominem a) An attack against an individual instead of against his/her position on the issues b) Devalues the statement without addressing the situation 6) Straw Man a) The persuader manufactures and defeats a weak argument that the other side “supposedly makes” i) Taking a small piece of a whole argument and defeating this argument 7) Ad Populum (Bandwagon) a) Appeals to whatever is popular at the time, “everyone is doing it”, therefore, it should be done. 8) False Dilemma (Bifurcation) a) Either “x” is true/best or “y” is true/best b) Choose one or two options when in reality, there are a variety of possible answers/sides to the argument c) (Come to church or die) (Drink milk or you’re a sinner) 9) Hasty Generalization a) An argument that takes a characteristic from a sample population and attributes it to an entire population without any further research b) Stereo types (all black men are good at basketball / women are terrible drivers) 10) Slippery Slope a) If something happens, something else will automatically follow. Something else will follow that and so on and so on b) “If you don’t lower tuition, no student will attend college, no professors will work, the school will become run down, the world will blow up, and we’ll all die” 11)Red Herring a) Distraction from key argument in order to focus on something else, (topic A is being discussed, topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A), topic A is abandoned 12)Appeal to Tradition a) “It’s good or right because it’s old” b) Organizations claiming something is important because they have always done something / have a tradition 13)Appeal to Authority a) Appeal to a popular figure/authority even though that “authority” may not be an authority on this topic i) EX: the quotes Einstein makes about war 14)Circular Argument a) Someone uses what they are trying to prove as part of the proof of this thing. i) EX: “the Bible is right because the Bible says so”