Calculate \(\Delta E\) and determine whether the process is endothermic or exothermic for the following cases: (a) \(q=0.763 \ kJ\) and \(w=-840 \ J\); (b) a system releases \(66.1 \ kJ\) of heat to its surroundings while the surroundings do \(44.0 \ kJ\) of work on the system; (c) the system absorbs \(7.25 \ kJ\) of heat from the surroundings while its volume remains constant (assume that only \(P-V\) work can be done).
q = 0.763 kJ
w = -840 J
Heart: ● Overview of the Cardiovascular System ○ The heart propels blood to and from most body tissues via two basic types of blood vessels calle rteries and veins. ○ Arteries are blood vessels that carry way to the heart. ○ Veins are blood vessels that carry d ack to the heart. ○ The arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart are called great vessels. ● General Characteristics and Functions of the Heart ○ Blood flow through the heart is unidirectional because of four heart valves. ○ The heart is functionally two side-by-side pumps that work at the same rate and pump the same volume of blood. ■ One pump directs blood to the lungs. ■ One pump directs blood to most body tissues. ○ The heart generates lood pressure through alternate cycles of the heart wall’s contraction and relaxation. ○ Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the inside walls of blood vessels. ○ A minimum blood pressure is essential to circulate blood throughout the body. ● Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations ○ The cardiovascular system consists of two circulations: ■ Pulmonary- r ight side of the heart and the pulmonary arteries and veins; right ventricle blood is conveyed to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart ■ Systemic- from the left ventricle