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Using modern analytical techniques, it is possible to

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 100AE Chapter 4

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 100AE

Problem 100AE

Using modern analytical techniques, it is possible to detect sodium ions in concentrations as low as 50 pg/mL. What is this detection limit expressed in (a) molarity of Na+, (b)Na+ ions per cubic centimeter?

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Ch. 15 Psychological Disorders Mental illness Psychopathology- mental illness  Features of psychological dysfunction in mental illness "Mental disorder" - no clear cut definition  Often seen as failure to adapt to environment  Breakdown in functioning (failure analysis approach)  Many severe types appear universal across cultures  Statistical rarity o Schizophrenia o Why we can't just use this Not all are bad, doesn't mean they are mentally disabled  Michelangelo  Super athletes  Subjective distress o Mood disorders o Why can't we just use this Not all bad  Bipolar mania (can be very happy at times)  Antisocial personalities (don't get stressed a lot)  Impairment o Breakdowns in functioning o Why can't we use it  Laziness (not a mental illness)  Societal disapproval o Abnormal - defined by society o Why can't we use it  Thomas Szasz (he says there's no such thing, it's society imposing its beliefs)  Homosexuality - used to be considered a mental illness  Biological dysfunction o Often genetic components o Schizophrenia o Bipolar disorder o Why can’t we just use this  Phobias  Learned helplessness History Middle Ages  A demonic model o Evil spirits o Exorcisms and witch hunts Renaissance  Medical model o A physical disorder o Asylums o Treatments = bloodletting and snake pits 1800s  Moral treatment model o Dignity, respect, kindness o No effective treatments 1950s  Policy of deinstitutionalization o Medications developed o Some able to return to society o But little/no follow up o Homeless 1970-2002 • Declined population of people institutionalized, because of medications and better treatments Defining Mental Illness Today DSM-V  Diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders  Groups and classifies mental disorders  18 different classes of disorders  Set of ‘decision’ rules for each condition Think organic - rule out physical causes first (like hormonal imbalances) Biopsychosocial approach - biological + psychosocial + social interactions BUT.... Categorical model: true - yes/no Comorbidity: co-occurrence of 2 or more Dimensional model: differ by degrees The Big Five Common Psychological Disorders (more common in...)  Substance abuse (male)  Anxiety (female)  Depression (female)  Antisocial personality (male)  Schizophrenia (equal) Anxiety related disorders  Most are transient (come and go)  Adaptive (Yerkes-Dodson law)  Excessive or inappropriate = maladaptive  One of the most prevalent and earliest onset of all classes of disorders Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)  About 3% of the population  1/3 develop it after major stressor or life change  Worry  Anxiety  Physical tension  Irritability Panic disorder  Panic attacks o Repeated and unexpected o Concerns about future attacks o Change personal behavior to avoid them Phobias  Intense fear of object or situation  Spiders  Agoraphobia - open spaces  Claustrophobia - small spaces  Social phobias - public speaking, etc Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  After experience (or witness) severely stressful event  Combat situations  Usually lasts a while  Flashbacks  Recurrent dreams  Avoiding reminders of trauma  Increased physiological arousal Obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD)  Obsessions - persistent unwanted ideas, thoughts or impulses  Causes anxiety/distress - which is relieved by compulsions  Compulsions - repetitive behaviors or mental acts Somatic Symptom Disorder:  Anxieties about physical symptoms Illness Anxiety Disorder:  Preoccupation with having undiagnosed serious disease Mood disorders Most common = major depressive disorder (mdd)  Over 20% of Americans  More reveal r in females  Happens around your 30s MDD  Extreme impairment in functioning (didn't wanna get out of bed)  Gradual or sudden onset  Often recurrent  Episode 6-12 months  Most people have 5-6 episodes  Feeling sad or irritable  Sleep difficulties  Fatigue  Weight change  Suicide thoughts bipolar disorder  Both Depressive and manic episodes  Depression (like MDD)  Mania: o Elevated mood, talkative o High energy, lowered need o Inflated self esteem o Highly irresponsible behaviors Suicide  More than 30,000 people in U.S Attempt suicide each year  11th leading cause of death  Risk factors o MDD and bipolar o Previous suicide attempts o Hopelessness Suicide myths  Personality disorders  Substantial comorbidity with other disorders  Should only be diagnosed if traits first appeared by adolescence  Traits are: o Stable o Occur in a wide variety of situations o Lead to distress or impairment Borderline personality disorder (BPD)  Mainly in women  Instability in mood and impulse control  Self-district your tendencies  Overreact to stress  Lifelong difficulties regulating emotions Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)  Mainly males  Long history of illegal behavior (frequent arrests)  Irritable, aggressive  Irresponsible, impulsive  Dishonest  Guiltless – no true remorse  Disregard for safety of self or others  Overlaps with psychopathic personality disorder Psychopathic personality disorder (not antisocial)  Previously psychopath or sociopath  Appear normal  Mainly males  Difference between antisocial - antisocial is characterized by being in trouble with the law  Guiltless – no true remorse  Disregard for safety of others  Superficial charm  Dishonesty and manipulative  Self-centered  Risk taking  Overlaps with antisocial  Deficit in fear  Perpetually under aroused  Experience "stimulus hunger" Dissociative disorders Disruptions in:  Consciousness  Memory  Identity  Perception Depersonalization/derealization disorder:  Walking around in a movie or dream  World feels unreal  Multiple episodes Dissociative amnesia  Can't remember important personal info/events  Often after a stressful event  NOT normal forgetting Type: dissociative fugue  Dissociative amnesia on steroids  Very rare  Fugue is Latin for flight  Disappear from current life  Move away  Hours - years Dissociative identity disorder (DID)  Multiple personality disorder  Presence of two or more distinct alters  Most don't show alters prior to therapy Schizophrenia  Severe disorder of thought and emotion  Genetic vulnerabilities triggered by psychosocial factors o Less than 1% of population o Loss of contact with reality o Dilutions/hallucinations o Disturbances in: thinking, emotion and language o "Positive" symptoms (psychotic)  Delusions - strong fixed beliefs with no basis in reality (someone is out to get you)  Hallucinations - sensory perceptions with no external stimuli  Disorganized speech - word salad - words that make no sense  Disorganized behavior - Catatonia o "Negative" symptoms o Reduced function o Social withdrawal o Flat affect (don't express much emotion) o Harder to get rid of Childhood Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders Severe deficits in:  Language  Social bonding  Imagination  Often accompanied by mental retardation Spectrum includes Asperger’s Disorder  Less severe  Often normal to high intelligence Increase in prevalence since early 1990s Reflects more liberal diagnostic criteria Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD; ADHD)  Strong genetic influence  3-7% of school children  More males than females (3:1)  Inattention  Impulsivity  Hyperactivity  Numerous functional problems  Both children and adults  Successfully treated with stimulant meds  Severe symptoms sometimes confused with bipolar disorder

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 4, Problem 100AE is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. Since the solution to 100AE from 4 chapter was answered, more than 362 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 100AE from chapter: 4 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. The answer to “Using modern analytical techniques, it is possible to detect sodium ions in concentrations as low as 50 pg/mL. What is this detection limit expressed in (a) molarity of Na+, (b)Na+ ions per cubic centimeter?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 34 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: analytical, centimeter, concentrations, cubic, detect. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724.

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Using modern analytical techniques, it is possible to