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Concentrations of Solutions (Section)(a) You have a stock

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 73E Chapter 4

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 73E

Problem 73E

Concentrations of Solutions (Section)

(a) You have a stock solution of 14.8 M NH3. How many millilitres of this solution should you dilute to make 1000.0 mL of 0.250 M NH3?

(b) If you take a 10.0-mL portion of the stock solution and dilute it to a total volume of 0.500 L, what will be the concentration of the final solution?

Step-by-Step Solution:
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CRJU 110 Exam 1 Study Guide CRIME Definitions: ­ Crime​: an intentional act or omission, or an act in violation of criminal statutes, committed without defense or justification, and sanctioned by the state as either a felony or a misdemeanor ­ Law​: body of rules which defines which behaviors are forbidden; provides rules of conduct; sets out punishment for violations; protects the welfare of society ­ Norms: ​ expectations of conduct in a given situation ­ Criminology​: the study of crime (nature ­ violent crimes like murder, rape, robbery or petty crimes like drugs, theft, drinking, gambling; extent ­ increase, decrease in certain crimes; cause) ­ Criminal Justice System (CJS)​: formal process established to apprehend adjudicate, sanction, and treat criminal offers; the main agencies and components responsible to enforce criminal law; police, courts, and correction ­ Criminal Justice​: the study of CJS agencies (describe, analyze, explain,and evaluate) Social Control: to ensure conforming behavior ­ Informal Social Control: unofficial, non­organizational, often face­to­face avenues to ensure conforming behavior ­ Formal Social Control: offical, often organizational avenues to ensure conforming behavior ­ 3 mechanisms ­ norms: expectations of conduct in a given situation ­ sanction: reactions or responses to behavior/actions ­ laws: criminal laws to protect us from violations of criminal statutes and rules; civil law to protect us from non criminal personal and people violations 4 factors of criminal law that must be present and proven ­ Must be proven “Beyond Reasonable Doubt”: ­ 4 elements are required: ­ 1. Actus Reus (guilty act) ­ aggressive action ­ inaction/failure to act (physician/patient, poverty/child) ­ relationship of parties based on status (husband/wife, parent/child) ­ imposition by statute ­ contractual relationships (babysitter/child, physician/patient) ­ 2. Mens Rea (guilty mind) ­ general intent: requires that a defendant know, in general terms, that the type of conduct in which he/she is engaged, even if the actor does not foresee the result, that the conduct may produce harm ­ specific intent: direct evidence of a person’s state of mind ­ constructive intent/malice ­ transferred intent (if a man A attempts to shoot man B but he misses and kills man C by accident, the intent is transferred) ­ degrees/gradation of mental fault (negligently, recklessly, knowingly, purposely) ­ 3. Concurrence ­ establishes the relationship between the act and the mind ­ 4. Causation ­ determination of “cause in fact” or “proximate cause” (eliminating other rival cause) TYPES OF CRIME Violent Crime Homicide: the willful (non­negligent) killing of one human being by another ­ does not include: ­ death by negligence, suicide, or accident ­ attempted murder ­ Justifiable Homicide ­ the killing of a felon by a law enforcement in the line of duty ­ the killing of a felon, during the commissioning of a felony, by a private citizen (aka self­defense) Victim/Offender Relationship ­ overall, 52% of victims did not know their assailant ­ 7 out of 10 robberies were committed by strangers ­ 3 out of 10 rapes/sexual assaults were committed by strangers ­ approximately 13% of murders were committed by strangers Rape: “Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without consent of the victim” ­ ⅔ of rapes happen at night ­ rape victims NCVS statistics for 2000: ­ 34% stranger ­ 17% intimate relationship ­ 43% friend/acquaintance ­ 4% relationship unknown ­ Most rapes are not reported to the police: ­ 63% of completed rapes are not reported ­ 65% of attempted rapes are not reported ­ the victim believes the police cannot apprehend the subject ­ the victim believes they might receive unsympathetic treatment from the police and go through uncomfortable procedures (e.g. medical evidence) ­ the victim fears reprisal ­ the victim fears re­victimization by the criminal justice system ­ the victim doesn't want the embarrassment of publicity Robbery: the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force, threat of force, violence, or by putting the victim in fear Assault: Aggravated Assault: an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury, includes attempts Simple Assault: attack without weapon resulting in minor injury or a limited threat of violence, usually charged as a misdemeanor ­ Reasons why assault victims don't report the crime to police ­ the victims consider the offense a personal matter ­ victim believes he/she got what they deserved ­ victims fear revenge if charges are pursued Property Crime Larceny/Theft ­ is the most common property crime committed in the U.S. ­ theft (except motor vehicle): the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the constructive possession of another (examples are stealing a bicycle, shoplifting, accessories of any kind, etc.) ­ includes attempted larceny Burglary ­ the FBI defines burglary as the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft ­ distinction ­ depending on the value of the asset stolen ­ includes attempted forced entry Motor Vehicle Theft ­ FBI defines MV theft as the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle (boats, airplanes, and farming equipment are excluded) Arson ­ any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn with or without intent to defraud, a swelling house, public building, motor vehicle, personal property (aircraft is excluded here) ­ may have a variety of instrumental motivations such as financial gain, revenge, and intimidation or expressive motivations that may signal psychopathology of some sort Embezzlement ­ misappropriation or misapplication of money or property entrusted to one’s care, custody, or control Fraud ­ fraudulent conversion and obtaining money or property by false pretenses ­ theft by trick ­ (ex. bad check) ­ higher female involvement Stolen Property ­ buying, receiving, or possessing stolen property ­ attempts included ­ if you know it's stolen it's a felony ­ usually a misdemeanor Identity Theft ­ occurs when someone uses your personal information without your permission to commit fraud or some other crime ­ criminals gain access to the personal information of others by stealing it, buying it, or simply by having it given to them by their unwary victims Cybercrime ­ the use of computer technology to criminally victimize unwary individuals or groups ­ everyone who enters cyberspace, uses a credit card, and/or has a SSN is a potential victim of cybercrime Types of Property Offenders Occasional Property Offender 1) Situational ­ not frequent 2) No/Limited Group Support ­ by himself, don't need someone helping them 3) No/Limited Skills ­ no technical knowledge needed 4) No criminal identity ­ do they see themself as a criminal (ex. drug user) 5) No/Limited Contact with criminal justice system a) examples: vandalism, stealing clothes, some arson Conventional Property Offender 1) Non­Situational ­ frequent/regular, supplement of income 2) Medium Group Support ­ not alone/ needs others 3) Criminal Technique/Skill 4) Greatest Criminal Identity ­ more lengthy arrest criminal record/arrests 5) Highest Contact with criminal justice system *Professional Property Offender *White Collar and Corporate Crime CRIME DATA SOURCES UCR (Uniform Crime Report) ­ crime stats are collected by branches of the criminal justice system (police departments) ­ crime stats are compiled and shared by the FBI ­ data are accumulated nationally as police officers report calls, crimes, and arrests, etc. Strengths ­ it shows trends and patterns of crime over time ­ it provides crime data at different levels Weaknesses ­ recording practices are inconsistent ­ multiple offenses are not recorded, only the most serious crime ­ different police departments and police officers may define a type of crime differently ­ not all jurisdictions report crime stats to the FBI ­ not all crimes are reported to the police NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) ­ provides estimates of the victimization experience for the entire U.S population ­ is designed to show the amount of criminal victimization occurring in the U.S. even when such victimization does not com to the attention of the police Strengths ­ gets at the Dark Face of Crime and why crimes go unreported ­ provides information on the victims of crime (attitudes, cost of crime, injuries, weapon use, beliefs about crime and punishment ­ based on probability sampling (random and representative Weakness ­ high costs ­ the data are dependent on the recall of the respondents ­ respondents are not likely to report failed attempts (UCR does) ­ people may define crime differently than the criminal justice officials ­ respondents often fail to report certain types of crimes and/or crimes that involve acquaintances or relatives of the victim ­ in collecting information, only one person per household is interviewed ­ major variation noted in reporting by respondent’s race, sex, age, income, and education SRS (Self­Report Surveys) ­ ask people to state if (and how often) they have engaged in acts that could be defined as criminal or delinquent Strengths ­ gets at the Dark Figure of Crime ­ provides detailed demographic information on offenders (schools attendance, family situation, conventional activities, and other individual and theoretical information) ­ a source of info on attitudes and beliefs of those who engage in criminal activity Weaknesses ­ lack of standard reporting format; vague measures of criminal involvement are often used (never, often, and sometimes) ­ asks only about trivial offenses (general delinquency, status offenses, etc.) ­ dependent on the recall of the respondent ­ dependent on the willingness of respondents to answer truthfully Format of Exam 38 multiple choice (2 pts each) 10 T/F (2 pts each) 1 short answer (4 pts) Note​: This study guide does not include professional property offender or white collar and corporate crime. These topics will be finished in class on Tuesday but I wanted to put the study guide up on Monday so that everyone has plenty of time to study materials. Thank you for understanding! :)

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Chapter 4, Problem 73E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

This full solution covers the following key subjects: solution, stock, dilute, section, make. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 73E from chapter: 4 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. Since the solution to 73E from 4 chapter was answered, more than 346 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Concentrations of Solutions (Section)(a) You have a stock solution of 14.8 M NH3. How many millilitres of this solution should you dilute to make 1000.0 mL of 0.250 M NH3? (b) If you take a 10.0-mL portion of the stock solution and dilute it to a total volume of 0.500 L, what will be the concentration of the final solution?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 60 words.

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Concentrations of Solutions (Section)(a) You have a stock