Concentrations of Solutions (Section)
(a) You have a stock solution of 14.8 M NH3. How many millilitres of this solution should you dilute to make 1000.0 mL of 0.250 M NH3?
(b) If you take a 10.0-mL portion of the stock solution and dilute it to a total volume of 0.500 L, what will be the concentration of the final solution?
CRJU 110 Exam 1 Study Guide CRIME Definitions: Crime: an intentional act or omission, or an act in violation of criminal statutes, committed without defense or justification, and sanctioned by the state as either a felony or a misdemeanor Law: body of rules which defines which behaviors are forbidden; provides rules of conduct; sets out punishment for violations; protects the welfare of society Norms: expectations of conduct in a given situation Criminology: the study of crime (nature violent crimes like murder, rape, robbery or petty crimes like drugs, theft, drinking, gambling; extent increase, decrease in certain crimes; cause) Criminal Justice System (CJS): formal process established to apprehend adjudicate, sanction, and treat criminal offers; the main agencies and components responsible to enforce criminal law; police, courts, and correction Criminal Justice: the study of CJS agencies (describe, analyze, explain,and evaluate) Social Control: to ensure conforming behavior Informal Social Control: unofficial, nonorganizational, often facetoface avenues to ensure conforming behavior Formal Social Control: offical, often organizational avenues to ensure conforming behavior 3 mechanisms norms: expectations of conduct in a given situation sanction: reactions or responses to behavior/actions laws: criminal laws to protect us from violations of criminal statutes and rules; civil law to protect us from non criminal personal and people violations 4 factors of criminal law that must be present and proven Must be proven “Beyond Reasonable Doubt”: 4 elements are required: 1. Actus Reus (guilty act) aggressive action inaction/failure to act (physician/patient, poverty/child) relationship of parties based on status (husband/wife, parent/child) imposition by statute contractual relationships (babysitter/child, physician/patient) 2. Mens Rea (guilty mind) general intent: requires that a defendant know, in general terms, that the type of conduct in which he/she is engaged, even if the actor does not foresee the result, that the conduct may produce harm specific intent: direct evidence of a person’s state of mind constructive intent/malice transferred intent (if a man A attempts to shoot man B but he misses and kills man C by accident, the intent is transferred) degrees/gradation of mental fault (negligently, recklessly, knowingly, purposely) 3. Concurrence establishes the relationship between the act and the mind 4. Causation determination of “cause in fact” or “proximate cause” (eliminating other rival cause) TYPES OF CRIME Violent Crime Homicide: the willful (nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another does not include: death by negligence, suicide, or accident attempted murder Justifiable Homicide the killing of a felon by a law enforcement in the line of duty the killing of a felon, during the commissioning of a felony, by a private citizen (aka selfdefense) Victim/Offender Relationship overall, 52% of victims did not know their assailant 7 out of 10 robberies were committed by strangers 3 out of 10 rapes/sexual assaults were committed by strangers approximately 13% of murders were committed by strangers Rape: “Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without consent of the victim” ⅔ of rapes happen at night rape victims NCVS statistics for 2000: 34% stranger 17% intimate relationship 43% friend/acquaintance 4% relationship unknown Most rapes are not reported to the police: 63% of completed rapes are not reported 65% of attempted rapes are not reported the victim believes the police cannot apprehend the subject the victim believes they might receive unsympathetic treatment from the police and go through uncomfortable procedures (e.g. medical evidence) the victim fears reprisal the victim fears revictimization by the criminal justice system the victim doesn't want the embarrassment of publicity Robbery: the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force, threat of force, violence, or by putting the victim in fear Assault: Aggravated Assault: an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury, includes attempts Simple Assault: attack without weapon resulting in minor injury or a limited threat of violence, usually charged as a misdemeanor Reasons why assault victims don't report the crime to police the victims consider the offense a personal matter victim believes he/she got what they deserved victims fear revenge if charges are pursued Property Crime Larceny/Theft is the most common property crime committed in the U.S. theft (except motor vehicle): the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the constructive possession of another (examples are stealing a bicycle, shoplifting, accessories of any kind, etc.) includes attempted larceny Burglary the FBI defines burglary as the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft distinction depending on the value of the asset stolen includes attempted forced entry Motor Vehicle Theft FBI defines MV theft as the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle (boats, airplanes, and farming equipment are excluded) Arson any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn with or without intent to defraud, a swelling house, public building, motor vehicle, personal property (aircraft is excluded here) may have a variety of instrumental motivations such as financial gain, revenge, and intimidation or expressive motivations that may signal psychopathology of some sort Embezzlement misappropriation or misapplication of money or property entrusted to one’s care, custody, or control Fraud fraudulent conversion and obtaining money or property by false pretenses theft by trick (ex. bad check) higher female involvement Stolen Property buying, receiving, or possessing stolen property attempts included if you know it's stolen it's a felony usually a misdemeanor Identity Theft occurs when someone uses your personal information without your permission to commit fraud or some other crime criminals gain access to the personal information of others by stealing it, buying it, or simply by having it given to them by their unwary victims Cybercrime the use of computer technology to criminally victimize unwary individuals or groups everyone who enters cyberspace, uses a credit card, and/or has a SSN is a potential victim of cybercrime Types of Property Offenders Occasional Property Offender 1) Situational not frequent 2) No/Limited Group Support by himself, don't need someone helping them 3) No/Limited Skills no technical knowledge needed 4) No criminal identity do they see themself as a criminal (ex. drug user) 5) No/Limited Contact with criminal justice system a) examples: vandalism, stealing clothes, some arson Conventional Property Offender 1) NonSituational frequent/regular, supplement of income 2) Medium Group Support not alone/ needs others 3) Criminal Technique/Skill 4) Greatest Criminal Identity more lengthy arrest criminal record/arrests 5) Highest Contact with criminal justice system *Professional Property Offender *White Collar and Corporate Crime CRIME DATA SOURCES UCR (Uniform Crime Report) crime stats are collected by branches of the criminal justice system (police departments) crime stats are compiled and shared by the FBI data are accumulated nationally as police officers report calls, crimes, and arrests, etc. Strengths it shows trends and patterns of crime over time it provides crime data at different levels Weaknesses recording practices are inconsistent multiple offenses are not recorded, only the most serious crime different police departments and police officers may define a type of crime differently not all jurisdictions report crime stats to the FBI not all crimes are reported to the police NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) provides estimates of the victimization experience for the entire U.S population is designed to show the amount of criminal victimization occurring in the U.S. even when such victimization does not com to the attention of the police Strengths gets at the Dark Face of Crime and why crimes go unreported provides information on the victims of crime (attitudes, cost of crime, injuries, weapon use, beliefs about crime and punishment based on probability sampling (random and representative Weakness high costs the data are dependent on the recall of the respondents respondents are not likely to report failed attempts (UCR does) people may define crime differently than the criminal justice officials respondents often fail to report certain types of crimes and/or crimes that involve acquaintances or relatives of the victim in collecting information, only one person per household is interviewed major variation noted in reporting by respondent’s race, sex, age, income, and education SRS (SelfReport Surveys) ask people to state if (and how often) they have engaged in acts that could be defined as criminal or delinquent Strengths gets at the Dark Figure of Crime provides detailed demographic information on offenders (schools attendance, family situation, conventional activities, and other individual and theoretical information) a source of info on attitudes and beliefs of those who engage in criminal activity Weaknesses lack of standard reporting format; vague measures of criminal involvement are often used (never, often, and sometimes) asks only about trivial offenses (general delinquency, status offenses, etc.) dependent on the recall of the respondent dependent on the willingness of respondents to answer truthfully Format of Exam 38 multiple choice (2 pts each) 10 T/F (2 pts each) 1 short answer (4 pts) Note: This study guide does not include professional property offender or white collar and corporate crime. These topics will be finished in class on Tuesday but I wanted to put the study guide up on Monday so that everyone has plenty of time to study materials. Thank you for understanding! :)