×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry - Textbook Survival Guide
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry - Textbook Survival Guide

The discovery of hafnium, element number 72, provided a

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 99IE Chapter 6

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

4 5 1 241 Reviews
31
4
Problem 99IE

The discovery of hafnium, element number 72, provided a controversial episode in chemistry. G. Urbain, a French chemist, claimed in 1911 to have isolated an element number 72 from a sample of rare earth (elements 58–71) compounds. However, Niels Bohr believed that hafnium was more likely to be found along with zirconium than with the rare earths. D. Coster and G. von Hevesy, working in Bohr’s laboratory in Copenhagen, showed in 1922 that element 72 was present in a sample of Norwegian zircon, an ore of zirconium. (The name hafnium comes from the Latin name for Copenhagen, Hafnia). (a) How would you use electron configuration arguments to justify Bohr’s prediction? (b) Zirconium, hafnium’s neighbor in group 4B, can be produced as a metal by reduction of solid ZrCl4 with molten sodium metal. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. Is this an oxidation-reduction reaction? If yes, what is reduced and what is oxidized? (c) Solid zirconium dioxide, ZrO2, reacts with chlorine gas in the presence of carbon. The products of the reaction are ZrCl4 and two gases, CO2 and CO in the ratio 1:2. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. Starting with a 55.4-g sample of ZrO2, calculate the mass of ZrCl4 formed, assuming that ZrO2 is the limiting reagent and assuming 100% yield. (d) Using their electron configurations, account for the fact that Zr and Hf form chlorides MCl4 and oxides MO2.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Chapter 7 Relevant Key Terms 1. SN2: ​1 step mechanism, x leaving and y inserting at same time, both arrows drawn at once, 1 transition state, 0 intermediates, Back-Side Attack, Inversion Configuration, “RDS” Rate Determining step - bimolecular - 2 molecules involved, 2. SN1: ​2 step mechanism, “RDS” Rate Determining Step - Unimolecular - 1 molecule...

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 6, Problem 99IE is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

The discovery of hafnium, element number 72, provided a

×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry - Textbook Survival Guide
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry - Textbook Survival Guide
×
Reset your password