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Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 7 - Problem 2e
Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 7 - Problem 2e

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# If you look up the radius of the sulfur atom in this book, ISBN: 9780321696724 27

## Solution for problem 2E Chapter 7

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 2E

If you look up the radius of the sulfur atom in this book, you will find just one number: 1.02 Å. However, if you look deeper into the chemical literature, you can find another number for the radius of a sulfur atom: the nonbonding radius of 1.80 Å. This is a very large difference! Explain. [Section 7.3] Step-by-Step Solution:
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PHIL 1017 Exam 1 Section 2: Conjunction the conjunction is only true if both conjuncts are true p q (dot means “and”) associative: internal grouping doesn't matter (p.q).r = p.(q.r) commutive: p.q = q.p not a conjunction if it conveys a succession in time. Section 3: Negation the negation is true is the negated statement is false “it is not the case that” is the symbol ‘—‘ negation of p is —p Section 4: Disjunction “or” means at least one statement is true —> inclusive sense inclusive —> p v q —> “p or q or both” exclusive sense: p or q is true if only one is true exclusive —> (p v q) . — (p . q) —> “p or q but not both” commutive: pvq = qvp Section 5: Grouping we group things to avoid confusion de Morgan’s Law —(p.q) is the same as —p v —q —(pvq) is the same as —p . —q Section 6: Truth-Functions truth-values: whether the statement is true or false truth-functions: negation, conjunction, and disjunction truth-tables: T=true, F=false p q p.q pvq —(p.q) T T T T F T F F T T F T F T T F F F F T Section 6: Conditionals p>q means “if p then q” a conditional is true if either its consequent is true or its antecedent is false, & is false otherwise material conditional: truth-functional analysis of conditional (basics) generalized conditional: allows you to analyze the conditionals counterfaced conditionals: antecedent is already assumed false contrapositive: the same converse: not the same inverse: contrapositive of converse biconditionals: statements of the form p=-q (three lines horizontally) the biconditional of two statements is true if both the statements are true or if both are false p=-q is the same as (p.q)v(—p.—q) p q p>q p=-q T T T T T F F F F T T F F F T T Section 8: Logical Paraphrase logical paraphrase requires three tasks: 1) the locutions that serve as connectives have to be identiﬁed and suitably translated into symbols; conjunctions can also be expressed by “but” and “although” “the senator will not testify unless he is granted immunity” is the same as “the senator will testify>the senator is granted immunity” 2) the constituents of the statement have to be demarcated, and possibly rephrased to make their content explicit; fallacy of equivocation: not always interpreting the same expression in the same manner apparently this is bad 3) the organization of the constituents, that is, the grouping, has to be determined. look for the outermost structure ﬁrst then paraphrase inward step by step “If Figaro does not expose the court and force him to reform, then the Countess will discharge Susanna” —(p.q)>(r.s) **look at the example on page 33-35 of Goldfarb’s Deductive Logic Section 9: Schemata and Interpretation truth-functional schemata: the compounds constructed from sentence letters (p,q,r) and the truth-functional connectives stand-in for statements interpretation of sentence letters is a correlation of a statement with each of the sentence letters truth-assignments: interpretations of truth-value behavior if compounds p q r pvq (pvq)>r T T T T T T T F T F T F T T T T F F T F F T T T T F T F T F F F T F T F F F F T Truth-functional Connective Rules 1) a negation is true if what is negated is false, and is false otherwise; 2) a conjunction is true if it’s conjuncts are all true, and is false otherwise; 3) a disjunction is true if at least one of it’s disjuncts is true, and is false otherwise; 4) a conditional is true except is its consequent is false and its antecedent is true, in that case it is false; 5) a biconditional is true if its two constituents have the same truth-value, and it false otherwise. p q r p.q —(p.q) q.r p=-(q.r) —(p.q)v(p=-(q.r)) T T T T F T T T T T F T F F F F T F T F T F F T T F F F T F F T F T T F T T F T F T F F T F T T F F T F T F T T F F F F T F T T the ﬁnal column: the column that actually gives us what we are looking for v marks a greater break than . > and =- mark greater breaks than v and . p . q v r = (p . q) v r p . q v (r > s) . —(q . r) = (p . q) v ((r > s) . —(q . r)) p . q v r > s . (p v r) = ((p . q) v r) > ((s . p) v r) p . q v r =- s . p v r = ((p . q) v r) =- ((s . p) v r) Section 10: Validity and Satisﬁability valid: a truth-functional schema that comes out true under all interpretations of it’s sentence letters (example is p > p) satisﬁable: a truth-functional schema that comes out true under at least one interpretation (example is p . —q) unsatisﬁable: one that comes out true under no interpretation (example is p . —p) truth-functionally valid statement: logical truth Section 11: Implication one truth-functional schema implies another if and only if there is no interpretation of the sentence letters under which the ﬁrst schema is true and the second is false schema implies another if the other is true when the ﬁrst is true one statement truth-functionally implies the other implication is the validity of the conditional Section 12: Use and Mention implication holds when and only when the relevant conditional is valid we use words to talk about things “Frege devised modern logic” mentions the logician by using his name “The author of Thoughts used truth tables” mentions the logician a name for an expression is formed by surrounding the expression with quotation marks “Frege” is a name of a German logician “Frege” refers to Frege syntactic variables: variables that range over schemata

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##### ISBN: 9780321696724

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 2E from chapter: 7 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. The answer to “?If you look up the radius of the sulfur atom in this book, you will find just one number: 1.02 Å. However, if you look deeper into the chemical literature, you can find another number for the radius of a sulfur atom: the nonbonding radius of 1.80 Å. This is a very large difference! Explain. [Section 7.3]” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 57 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. Since the solution to 2E from 7 chapter was answered, more than 600 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: radius, atom, sulfur, look, Find. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions.

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