×
Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 7 - Problem 10e
Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 7 - Problem 10e

×

# Periodic Table; Effective Nuclear Charge (Sections)(a)

ISBN: 9780321696724 27

## Solution for problem 10E Chapter 7

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

• Textbook Solutions
• 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
• Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

4 5 1 243 Reviews
10
1
Problem 10E

Problem 10E

Periodic Table; Effective Nuclear Charge (Sections)

(a) Moseley’s experiments on X rays emitted from atoms led to the concept of atomic numbers. Where exactly do these X rays come from? Draw an energy-level diagram to explain. (b) Why are chemical and physical properties of the elements more closely related to atomic numbers than they are to atomic weights?

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

print out labs from ilearn Slide 1:  Introduction to geology and geologic time 2  Earth formed 4.5 Ga (billion years ago)  Big bang 13.7 3  Structure of the earth o Everything is related o Outside of the earth (crust) is mostly silica and oxygen  Two types of crust (oceanic and continental) o Beneath the crust is the mantel  Silicates, magnesium and iron  As going to the center there are different chemicals and elements o Core  Mostly iron  Some nickel  Dense metals  Chemistry of the earth changes from less dense to more dense going in 4  Mechanical layers o Lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle o Asthenosphere is the upper mantle  Every time you feel an earthquake its those two layers operating together Slide o Lithosphere- plates o Asthenosphere- slushy Slide  Plate tectonics: o Manner in which plates move around on the earth, as a result of radioactive decay in the core, giving off heat, making the mantle go through upwelling, pushing the lithosphere around the asthenosphere  We are standing on a ridged plate, and every time it moves it is a reaction between the litho and asthenosphere Slide  Wasn’t until the 60’s that plate tectonics was accepted Slide We live on the ring of fire Slide Tectonic boundaries: o Divergent move away from each other (divergent movie, she was divergent and moved away from her family)  Spreading centers o Convergent- plates are colliding  Subduction zone- when ocean crust [destroyed] goes into land (underneath)  Continent-continent- mountains [neither is destroyed; just keep building up] o Transform- sliding past one another [san Andrea’s] Slide  All oceanic crust older than 180 million years old has be subducted under continental crust  This means that the oldest continental crust is about 4.1 billion years old Slide  Because of plate tectonics the earth has had many different configurations Slide  250 mya (million years ago) there was Pangea slide  Paleozoic; Mesozoic; Cenozoic  245, 135, 65 slide  rock types o igneous- cooled magma or lava o Sedimentary- form when rock forms from hardened sediments o Metamorphic- rocks altered b heat or chemical reactions Slide  Typically fossils are found and preserved in sedimentary rock Slide  Steno- father of understanding geological record of sedimentary rocks o Laws:  Original horizontality: all strata are deposited horizontally  Sediments get laid down horizontally  Lateral continuity: continuous lateral layers  Was first horizontal then due to erosion there are pieces gone but across there will be the same layer on the other side  Superposition: oldest rocks are on the bottom, youngest are on the top (top were deposited last) Slide  Time 1- horizontal deposited  2. Tectonics force uplifting and deformation  3. Magma introduced cutting across  4. Slide  relative and absolute dating Slide  dating; o relative ordering (dating relative to other sediments) o absolute measure of time (this is a million years old- specific dating) Slide  fossils occur in distinct intervals Slide  absolute dating- radioactive dating o certain isotopes are radioactive [unstable] [carbon 14] o the minute lava becomes rock, there is no more input or output o in it all the unstable isotopes, overtime they are still trying to become stable  unstable [parent]-> new element formed after going through radioactive decay [daughter]  time needed for half of parent to decay = half life  half life is element dependent Slide  decay is predictable but spontaneous [popcorn] o putting it in you don’t know which will pop first, but you know when pulling them out they will be popped  RATE of decay is constant Geo-003/Bio-010 Headlines in the History of Life ” Instructor: Mary Droser Before the headlines -Building the Tool Box: The Fossil Record Geology 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 4.5 billion years Origin of the Earth 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 3.5 billion years First evidence of life Fossil filamentous bacteria nearly 3.5 billion years old. This is one of the oldest fossils known. -Origins of Life & the first ~3 billionyears -Origins of Life & the first ~3 billionyears Time Today Modern Oxygen No oxygen F M E L r i E a i f t t k n c a v o y e r s e s t l B e n s s a o k e e a o f w f t f m o o e s NatureLyonsandothers, 2014, 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 565 million years First multicellular animals () 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 545 million years Cambrian Explosion 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 545 million years Cambrian Explosion 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 425 million years Invasion of Land 5 4 3 2 1 Billions of years ago Today 345 million years Amniotic Egg Evolution of the amniotic egg expanded the success of vertebrates on land 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 250 million years Permo-Triassic Mass Extinction Although nearly 96% of marine species go extinct, the ultimate cause is still debated. 5 Billions of years ago 4 3 2 1 Today 65 million years Dinosaurs go extinct How do we know Paleontology :study of ancient life through the fossil record Integrative/Interdisciplinary field utilizing Biology & Geology, as well as Oceanography,Atmospheric Science, Chemistry, etc. The Fossil Record demonstrates direct evidence of evolution and extinction of life on this planet. Why Bother 1)Resources– fossil fuel , coal: Why Bother 1)Resources 2)Climate Change: Why Bother 1)Resources 2)Climate Change 3)Biodiversity Crisis: Extinctions Why Bother 1)Resources 2)Climate Change 3)Biodiversity Crisis 4)Astrobiology:Life on other planets Why Bother 1)Resources 2)Climate Change 3)Biodiversity Crisis 4)Astrobiology 5)Evolution vs. Creationism How Do We Do This Science: “a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe” Science is both a body of knowledge and a process. In school, science may sometimes seem like a collection of isolated and static facts listed in a textbook, but that is only a small part of the story. Just as importantly, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to link isolated facts into coherent and comprehensive understanding of the natural world. Science is not just a tidy package of knowledge. Science is not just a step-by-step approach to discovery. Science is more like a mystery inviting anyone who is interested to become a detective and joinin the fun. How Do We Do This Science: “standardized method for discovering information about na”ure Method: -Make Observation How Do We Do This Science: “standardized method for discovering information about nat”re Method: -Make Observation -Form Question: Collect Data How Do We Do This Science: “standardized method for discovering information about nat”re Method: -Make Observation -Form Question:Collect Data -Hypothesize: “educatedguess” How Do We Do This Science: “standardized method for discovering information about natu”e Method: -Make Observation -Form Question:Collect Data -Hypothesize: “educated guess” -Experiment: Test Hypothesis: Collect More Data How Do We Do This Science: “standardized method for discovering information about natu”e Method: -Make Observation -Form Question:Collect Data -Hypothesize: “educated guess” -Experiment: est Hypothesis: Collect More Data -Analyze Data: Draw Conclusions… **Starting Point for New Hypothesis** How Do We Do This -Hypothesis: logical, testable idea/explanationfor an observed phenomenon. How Do We Do This Important Concepts in formulating Hypotheses 1) Parsimony: The simplest LOGICAL explanation is the best. 2) Replicability:All experiments/tests/results must be replicable **Other parties must be able to conduct the same tests and get the same results** Intro to Geology:

Step 2 of 3

Step 3 of 3

##### ISBN: 9780321696724

Since the solution to 10E from 7 chapter was answered, more than 477 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Periodic Table; Effective Nuclear Charge (Sections)(a) Moseley’s experiments on X rays emitted from atoms led to the concept of atomic numbers. Where exactly do these X rays come from? Draw an energy-level diagram to explain. (b) Why are chemical and physical properties of the elements more closely related to atomic numbers than they are to atomic weights?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 57 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: atomic, Rays, Numbers, explain, closely. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 10E from chapter: 7 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM.

## Discover and learn what students are asking

Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions : Riemann Sums and Definite Integrals
?In Exercises 3–8, evaluate the definite integral by the limit definition. $$\int_{-1}^{1} x^{3} d x$$

Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions : Conservative Vector Fields and Independence of Path
?In Exercises 5 - 10, determine whether the vector field is conservative. $$\mathbf{F}(x, y)=e^{x}(\sin y \mathbf{i}+\cos y \mathbf{j})$$

Statistics: Informed Decisions Using Data : Introduction to the Practice of Statistics
?A(n)_________ is a person or object that is a member of the population being studied.

#### Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution