Periodic Table; Effective Nuclear Charge (Sections)
(a) Moseley’s experiments on X rays emitted from atoms led to the concept of atomic numbers. Where exactly do these X rays come from? Draw an energy-level diagram to explain. (b) Why are chemical and physical properties of the elements more closely related to atomic numbers than they are to atomic weights?
From previous notes on PR: IMC = concept of giving incentives to consumers rather than aggressive advertising, thereby creating goodwill ● Lowe’s = positive example; store’s return policy guarantees refunds, earning trust from consumers (and more overall money) PR = management function which focuses on creating relationships through public and private communication with other groups (“publics”) for purpose of creating mutual goodwill Companies need goodwill with... ● Employees ● Competitors ● Customers ● Suppliers ● Bankers ...As well as these two publics, which require PR reps with special knowledge to deal with: ● Stockholders (financial PR reps convince execs to invest in company) ● Legislators (lobbyists work to write laws) Review Questions 1) What is the Stern Model ● The matrix used by all advertising to present a product so customers can imagine themselves using that product ● Consists of 3 elements: 1. A presenter of information 2. An “implied consumer,” a character in the ad through whom a consumer can experience the product vicariously 3. A narrative to convey #s 1 and 2 2) What is a SWOT analysis and why is it necessary in planning an advertising campaign ● Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats ● Strategic tool used to assess internal environment (creating brand, delivering product, making sure it works) and external environment (competitors’ actions, state of the market) 3) How are marketing and advertising different ● Marketing: using research to find target audience for advertising ● Advertising: building a brand and desire for a product 4) What does the equation R= X+X+X +X+X(t..have to do with advertising 1 2 3 4 i ● This is the chi squared formula, which explains how different variables motivate customers to buy a product ● Only about 20% max of this value is advertising; more people are influenced by family and friends, etc. 5) What constitutes deceptive advertising, unfair advertising, and puffery ● Deceptive advertising: omits information, preventing buyer from making reasonable decision ● Unfair advertising: takes advantage of distress, lack of reason ● Puffery: exaggeration, within certain limits, to make product sound more appealing; protected by 1st Amendment, unlike deceptive and unfair advertising 6) Is advertising covered by the 1st Amendment ● Yes, if it’s fair/nondeceptive 7) Which federal agencies regulate the content of advertising and why do they regulate content ● FDA handles food and drug advertising ● FTC handles all other advertising ● Agencies seek to prevent deceptive and unfair advertising 8) What is the prime demographic and why is it prime ● Young people ages 1222 ● Don’t have a lot of money, but will spend what they do have (or get parents to buy for them) 9) What is multidimensional scaling ● Psychographic measure of “cool,” an abstract grouping variable ● Set of data analysis techniques that display the structure of distancelike data in a geometric form 10) What is the attitudebehavior link and why is it important to advertising ● Peculiar type of longterm memory (attitude) differentiates from other longterm memories by implying behavior (buying behavior, in the case of advertising) ● In analogical advertising, there is a delay between attitude formation and ability to go out and buy 11) What is IMC and what’s the role of PR in the execution of IMC How do the professions of PR and advertising relate to each other under the umbrella of IMC ● IMC= Integrated Marketing Communications, in which companies produce heavilytargeted “integrated messages” ● National advertisers can no longer reach everyone at once because not everyone watches same medium simultaneously ● Both public relations and advertising create favorable messages for clients, but PR people do so by creating an atmosphere in which these messages are spread by word of mouth, journalists, etc., while advertising messages are designed, produced, and paid for by the client. Thus PR has a less precise reach, but potential for much greater credibility. ● Ad people and PR people are interdependent; PR sees self as umbrella over advertising. 12) What’s the difference between sales promotion and advertising ● Sales promotion: gives people incentives to buy things they don’t urgently need through coupons, discounts, etc. ● Advertising: builds the brand! 13) What’s different about marketing and advertising in the digital era ● According to Dr. Grimes, you’ll understand this once you see the test (and if you don’t, the question will probably be omitted anyway). Good luck!!!