Association Suppose you were to collect data for each pair of variables. You want to make a scatterplot. Which variable would you use as the explanatory variable and which as the response variable? Why? What would you expect to see in the scatterplot? Discuss the likely direction, form, and strength.
a) Apples: weight in grams, weight in ounces
b) Apples: circumference (inches), weight (ounces)
c) College freshmen: shoe size, grade point average
d) Gasoline: number of miles you drove since filling up, gallons remaining in your tank
CH.1 THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 8/29 Limits Of Intuition & Common Sense Hindsight Bias: tendency to believe that we would have foreseen an outcome after we’ve learned it Overconfidence: thinking we know more than we do Confirmations Bias: tendency to search for information that confirms our preconceptions The Scientific Method Used to develop theories o General principle or set of principles about a class of events Theories then help form hypotheses o Predictions about the causes of behavior based on a theory o Operationally define variables Specification about how a hypothesis will be tested Conducting systematic/controlled investigations Statistically