Mercury in the environment can exist in oxidation states 0, +1, and +2. One major question in environmental chemistry research is how to best measure the oxidation state of mercury in natural systems; this is made more complicated by the fact that mercury can be reduced or oxidized on surfaces differently than it would be if it were free in solution. XPS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is a technique related to PES (see Exercise), but instead of using ultraviolet light to eject valence electrons, X rays are used to eject core electrons. The energies of the core electrons are different for different oxidation states of the element. In one set of experiments, researchers examined mercury contamination of minerals in water. They measured the XPS signals that corresponded to electrons ejected from mercury’s 4f orbitals at 105 eV, from an X-ray source that provided 1253.6 eV of energy. The oxygen on the mineral surface gave emitted electron energies at 531 eV, corresponding to the 1s orbital of oxygen. Overall the researchers concluded that oxidation states were +2 for Hg and -2 for O (a) Calculate the wavelength of the X rays used in this experiment (b) Compare the energies of the 4f electrons in mercury and the 1s electrons in oxygen from these data to the first ionization energies of mercury and oxygen from the data in this chapter (c) Write out the ground-state electron configurations for Hg2+ and O2-; which electrons are the valence electrons in each case (d) Use Slater’s rules to estimate Zeff for the 4f and valence electrons of Hg2+ and O2-; assume for this purpose that all the inner lectrons with (n – 3) or less screen a full +1.
One way to measure ionization energies is ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), a technique based on the photoelectric effect. (Section) In PES, monochromatic light is directed onto a sample, causing electrons to be emitted. The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured. The difference between the energy of the photons and the kinetic energy of the electrons corresponds to the energy needed to remove the electrons (that is, the ionization energy). Suppose that a PES experiment is performed in which mercury vapor is irradiated with ultraviolet light of wavelength 58.4 nm. (a) What is the energy of a photon of this light, in eV? (b) Write an equation that shows the process corresponding to the first ionization energy of Hg. (c) The kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is measured to be 10.75 eV. What is the first ionization energy of Hg, in kJ/mol? (d) Using Figure determine which of the halogen elements has a first ionization energy closest to that of mercury.
Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry and Biochemistry-Part 1 by Mehrnaz Ighani . Chemistry: the basis of all physiological reactions such as movement, digestion, metabolism, and etc. . Chemistry has 2 subdivisions: 1. Basic chemistry 2. Biochemistry . Matter: any object that has mass and occupies space Weight is mass+ the force of gravity . 3 states of matter: 1. Solid: defined shape and volume 2. Liquid: changeable shape but defined volume 3. Gas: changeable shape and volume . Energy: the capacity to do work or put matter into motion Doesn’t have mass, nor does it take up space The greater the work done, the more energy needed . Energy exists in 2 forms: 1. Kinetic energy (energy in action) 2. Potential energy (stored energy) Energy can be tran