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Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 8 - Problem 5e
Get Full Access to Chemistry: The Central Science - 12 Edition - Chapter 8 - Problem 5e

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# Visualizing ConceptsIn the Lewis structure shown here, A,

ISBN: 9780321696724 27

## Solution for problem 5E Chapter 8

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 5E

Visualizing Concepts

In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table. Identify all six elements so that the formal charges of all atoms are zero. [Section]

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Using the exam document class Philip Hirschhorn Department of Mathematics Wellesley College Wellesley, MA 02481 psh@math.mit.edu Copyright 1994, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2011, 2015 Philip Hirschhorn All rights reserved May 7, 2015 This is the user’s guide for version 2.5 of the exam document class. Contents 1 Introduction 4 1.1 License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 2 Simple instructions for a basic exam 6 2.1 The \documentclass command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Asking for the student’s name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . 2.3 Asking questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . 2.4 Questions with parts, and subparts, and subsubparts . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2.5 Leaving space for the answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . 2.6 Headers and footers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . 3 The \documentclass command 11 3.1 The option addpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . 3.2 The option answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . 4 Questions and points 13 4.1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . 4.2 Questions with parts and subparts (and subsubparts) . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3 Point values for the questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 . . 4.3.1 Where the points will be printed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. 4.3.2 Printing the points at the end of the question . . . . . . . . . . . 19. 1 4.3.3 Half points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. 4.3.4 Surrounding the points: Parentheses, brackets, or a box . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.5 Using a substitute for the word \points" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.6 Using \marginpointname and enlarging the margins . . . . . . . . . 25 4.3.7 Completely customizing the points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.3.8 Questions that begin with a parts environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3.9 Adding up the points for a question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3.10 Margin sizes when using \pointsinmargin and \pointsinrightmargin 30 4.4 Custom question number lines: The \qformat command . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.4.1 Adding up the points for a question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.5 Titled questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. 4.5.1 \titledquestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.5.2 \thequestiontitle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.6 Bonus points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. 4.7 Counting the questions and adding up the points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 4.8 Referring to speci▯c questions by number (cross references) . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.9 Customizing the numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 4.10 Customizing the list parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5 Multiple choice and ▯ll in the blank questions 41 5.1 The choices environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.2 The oneparchoices environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5.3 The checkboxes environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.4 The oneparcheckboxes environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.5 Solutions to multiple choice questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5.6 Fill in the blank questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 5.6.1 True/False questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 5.6.2 Customizing the \fillin command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.7 Customizing the multiple choice environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6 Escaping the indentation: \uplevel and \fullwidth 49 6.1 Including instructions for a group of questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 6.2 Naming the parts of a long exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.2.1 Using \uplevel and \fullwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.2.2 Using the standard sectioning commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 7 Leaving space for the answers 54 7.1 Leaving blank space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. 7.2 Printing an empty box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 7.3 Printing lined space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. 7.4 Printing dotted lined space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 7.5 Printing space ▯lled with a grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 7.5.1 Covering every page with a grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 7.5.2 Printing graph paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Page 2 7.6 Short answer questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 7.7 Printing the answers to short answer questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 8 Solutions 67 8.1 Solution environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 8.2 The appearance of the solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 8.2.1 Printing the solution in a box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8.2.2 Printing the solution on a shaded background . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 8.2.3 Printing the solution with no framing or shading . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.3 Customizing the solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 8.3.1 The title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 . 8.3.2 Solution emphasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 8.3.3 Advanced customizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 8.4 Leaving space for the answers when solutions aren’t printed . . . . . . . . . 73 8.4.1 Cancelling the space from the optional arguments . . . . . . . . . . . 74 8.5 The solutionbox environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 8.6 Changes depending on whether or not solutions are being printed . . . . . . 76 8.6.1 Printing only selected solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 9 Grading tables and point tables 77 9.1 Grading tables indexed by question number or by page number . . . . . . . 78 9.2 Point tables indexed by question number or by page number . . . . . . . . . 81 9.3 Table entries as clickable links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 . 9.4 Grading ranges, partial grading tables, and partial point tables . . . . . . . .84 9.5 \pointsofquestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 9.6 \pointsonpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 9.7 Bonus grading tables and bonus point tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 9.8 Combined grading tables and combined point tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 9.9 Changing the total points in a table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 9.10 Customizing the tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 10 Changing the page margins 92 11 Headers and footers 93 11.1 Page styles: Headers and/or footers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 11.2 The three parts of the header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 11.2.1 Using \header, \firstpageheader and \runningheader . . . . . . . 95 11.2.2 Using \lhead, \chead and \rhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 11.3 The three parts of the footer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 11.3.1 Using \footer, \firstpagefooter and \runningfooter . . . . . . . 97 11.3.2 Using \lfoot, \cfoot, and \rfoot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 11.4 Leaving extra room for multiple line headers and footers . . . . . . . . . . . 98 11.5 Horizontal rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99. 11.6 Listing the number of pages in the exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Page 3 11.7 Treating the last page di▯erently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 11.8 Treating odd and even numbered pages di▯erently . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 11.9 Questions that span multiple pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 11.9.1 Questions continuing from the previous page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 11.9.2 Questions that continue onto a later page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 11.10Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 11.10.1Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 11.10.2Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 11.10.3Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 11.10.4Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 11.10.5Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 11.10.6Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 11.10.7Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 11.10.8Example: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 12 Cover pages 116 12.1 Headers and footers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 12.2 Listing the number of cover pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Index 119 1 Introduction The ▯le exam.cls provides the exam document class, which attempts to make it easy for even a LT X novice to prepare exams. Speci▯cally, exam.cls sets the page layout so that E there are one inch margins all around (no matter what size paper you’re using) and provides commands that make it easy to format questions, create exible headers and footers, change the margins, and create grading tables. In more detail: ▯ The class will automatically format and number the questions, parts of questions, subparts of parts, and subsubparts of subparts (see sections 4.1 and 4.2). ▯ You can include the point value of each question (or part, or subpart, or subsubpart), with your choice of having the point values printed at the beginning of the text of the question, opposite that in the left margin, opposite that in the right margin, or in the right margin opposite the end of the question (see section 4.3). ▯ The class will add up the total points for each question (and all of its parts, subparts, and subsubparts) and the total points on each page, and make those totals available in macros (see sections 4.3.9, 9.5 and 9.6). ▯ You can have the class print a grading table, indexed either by question number or by page number (see section 9.1). Page 4 ▯ You specify the header in three parts: One part to be left justi▯ed, one part to be centered, and one part to be right justi▯ed, and one or all of these can be omitted (see section 11.2). ▯ The footer is also speci▯ed in three parts: Left justi▯ed, centered, and right justi▯ed (see section 11.3). ▯ The header and footer for the ▯rst page can be di▯erent from the ones used on other pages (see sections 11.2.1, 11.2.2, 11.3.1, and 11.3.2). ▯ Both headers and footers can contain more than one line. To accommodate headers and footers with several lines, simple commands are provided to enlarge the part of the page devoted to the header and/or footer, and these commands can give one amount of space on the ▯rst page and a di▯erent amount of space on all other pages (see section 11.4). ▯ Macros are de▯ned to enable you to state the total number of pages in the exam (see section 11.6) and to change the header and/or footer that appears on the last page of the exam (see section 11.7). ▯ Macros are de▯ned so that the headers and footers can vary depending on whether the current page begins a new question or continues a question that started on an earlier page (and, if one continues onto the current page, to say what the number of that question is). Macros are also de▯ned so that the headers and footers can vary depending on whether a question is complete on the current page or continues on to the next page (and, if one continues, to say what the number of that question is) (see section 11.9). ▯ You can have a horizontal rule at the base of the header and/or at the top of the footer (see section 11.5). ▯ The exam can begin with one or more cover pages, which are numbered separately from the main pages of the exam and which can have headers and footers di▯erent from the ones in the main pages of the exam (see section 12). ▯ You can include solutions in your LT X ▯le and have these solutions either printed E or ignored (or replaced automatically by space in which the students can write their answers) depending on a single command (see section 8, section 5.5, and section 7.7). The latest version of exam.cls (possibly a beta test version) should always be available at http://www-math.mit.edu/~psh/. 1.1 License ▯ This work may be distributed and/or modi▯ed under the conditions of the LT X A E Project Public License, either version 1.3 of this license or (at your option) any later ver- sion. The latest version of this license is in http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt and version 1.3 or later is part of all distributionsEof LT X version 2003/12/01 or later. Page 5 ▯ This work has the LPPL maintenance status \author-maintained". ▯ This work consists of the ▯les exam.cls and examdoc.tex. 2 Simple instructions for a basic exam Producing a basic exam with the exam document class is fairly easy. After you learn to do that, you can read the parts of this user’s guide that describe how to customize whatever you want to change. 2.1 The \documentclass command To use the exam document class, your \documentclass command should be \documentclass[addpoints]{exam} or, if you want to use 12 point type, \documentclass[addpoints,12pt]{exam} There are other options; for the full story, see section 3. 2.2 Asking for the student’s name If you’ll be leaving space for the answers on the question pages (see sections 2.5 and 7), then you’ll probably also want to leave space for the student’s name. If you type \begin{center} \fbox{\fbox{\parbox{5.5in}{\centering Answer the questions in the spaces provided on the question sheets. If you run out of room for an answer, continue on the back of the page.}}} \end{center} \vspace{0.1in} \makebox[\textwidth]{Name and section:\enspace\hrulefill} \vspace{0.2in} \makebox[\textwidth]{Instructor’s name:\enspace\hrulefill} Page 6 after the \begin{document} command and before the \begin{questions} command (see section 4.1), then you’ll get Answer the questions in the spaces provided on the question sheets. If you run out of room for an answer, continue on the back of the page. Name and section: Instructor’s name: 2.3 Asking questions Once you’ve typed \begin{document} and (if the students will be writing their answers on the question pages) asked for the student’s name (see section 2.2), you can list the questions on the exam in a questions environment. You begin each question with a \question command, which is optionally followed by a number of points inside of square brackets. For example, if you type \begin{questions} \question[10] Why is there air \question[15] How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood \question[10] Compute $\displaystyle\int_0^1 x^2 \, dx$. \end{questions} then you’ll get 1. (10 points) Why is there air 2. (15 points) How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood Z 1 3. (10 points) Compute x dx. 0 As the above example illustrates, you can leave blank lines between the \question com- mand and the actual beginning of the question, or before the ▯rst \question command in the environment, and they will be ignored. The point values are entirely optional; if you omit the point values, you should also omit the square brackets containing them. Page 7 If you give the command \marksnotpoints, then the words \point" and \points" will be replaced by the words \mark" and \marks". There are many other customizations possible for the points, including using a di▯erent language, changing the way the points are printed, and by having them printed in one of the margins. For the full story, see section 4.3. 2.4 Questions with parts, and subparts, and subsubparts If you want to create a question with parts, you use a parts environment and begin each part with the command \part. The parts environment can be at the beginning of a question or after some text that begins the question. (There are also subparts and subsubparts environments; for the full details, see section 4.2.) For example, if you type \begin{questions} \question[10] Why is there air \question What if there were no air \begin{parts} \part[5] Describe the effect on the balloon industry. \part[5] Describe the effect on the aircraft industry. \end{parts} \question[20] \begin{parts} \part Define the universe. Give three examples. \part If the universe were to end, how would you know \end{parts} \end{questions} then you’ll get 1. (10 points) Why is there air 2. What if there were no air Page 8 (a) (5 points) Describe the e▯ect on the balloon industry. (b) (5 points) Describe the e▯ect on the aircraft industry. 3. (20 points) (a) De▯ne the universe. Give three examples. (b) If the universe were to end, how would you know The above example illustrates several things: ▯ Parts of a question should be put into a parts environment. ▯ If a question begins with a parts environment, then the ▯rst part will appear on the same line with the question number. ▯ You can leave blank lines before and after the \part command, and they will be ignored. ▯ You can assign points either to the question or to the parts of a question. 2.5 Leaving space for the answers To leave blank space after a question you use the \vspace command, and you end a page with the \newpage command. For example, if you wanted to leave 3 inches of space after the ▯rst question and 2 inches of space after each of the parts of the second question, your questions environment would contain the following: \question[10] Why is there air \vspace{3in} \question What if there were no air \begin{parts} \part[5] Describe the effect on the balloon industry. \vspace{2in} \part[5] Describe the effect on the aircraft industry. \vspace{2in} \end{parts} \newpage If you want to equally distribute the space on a page among several questions (or parts, or subparts, or subsubparts), you should type Page 9 \vspace{\stretch{1}} after each of the questions (or parts, etc.) and end the page with \newpage. If you’d like one of those questions to receive twice as much space as each of the others, then follow that one question with \vspace{\stretch{2}} and follow each of the others with \vspace{\stretch{1}}. (You can use any decimal number for the \stretch value. For example, \vspace{\stretch{1.5}} will allocate 1.5 times the amount of space allocated by \vspace{\stretch{1}}.) In addition to leaving blank space, it’s also possible to leave lined space, dotted lined space, or an empty box. For the full story, see section 7. 2.6 Headers and footers To produce headers and footers, you give the command \pagestyle{headandfoot} in the preamble (i.e., after the \documentclass command and before the \begin{document} command), followed by the commands that say what will be in the headers and footers. Headers and footers each have three parts: One part on the left, one centered part, and one part on the right, and any of these can be empty. The headers and footers are determined by the commands \firstpageheader for the header on the ▯rst page, \firstpagefooter for the footer on the ▯rst page, \firstpageheadrule to put a horizontal rule in the head of the ▯rst page, \firstpagefootrule to put a horizontal rule in the foot of the ▯rst page, \runningheader for the header after the ▯rst page, \runningfooter for the footer after the ▯rst page \runningheadrule to put a horizontal rule in the head after the ▯rst page, and \runningfootrule to put a horizontal rule in the foot after the ▯rst page. For example, to have the header Math 115 First Exam July 4, 1776 on the ▯rst page, the header Math 115 First Exam, Page 2 of 5 July 4, 1776 on all pages after the ▯rst, and no footer on any page, give the commands \pagestyle{headandfoot} \runningheadrule \firstpageheader{Math 115}{First Exam}{July 4, 1776} \runningheader{Math 115} {First Exam, Page \thepage\ of \numpages} {July 4, 1776} \firstpagefooter{}{}{} \runningfooter{}{}{} Page 10 For another example, to have the header Math 115 First Exam July 4, 1776 on the ▯rst page, no header on the pages after the ▯rst, no footer on the ▯rst page, and the footer Math 115 First Exam Page 2 of 5 on all pages after the ▯rst, give the commands \pagestyle{headandfoot} \firstpageheader{Math 115}{First Exam}{July 4, 1776} \runningheader{}{}{} \firstpagefooter{}{}{} \runningfooter{Math 115}{First Exam}{Page \thepage\ of \numpages} \runningfootrule Sections 11.10.1 through 11.10.8 contain many other examples of headers and footers, and the full explanation of the commands for headers and footers is in sections 11.1{11.9. 3 The \documentclass command To use the exam document class, you should specify exam as the required argument to your \documentclass command, as in \documentclass{exam} or, e.g., if you want to use 12 point type, \documentclass[12pt]{exam} There are two possible optional arguments that are speci▯c to the exam document class: addpoints and solutions. Most documents that use the exam document class should use the option addpoints (see section 3.1); the option answers is used when you want to print solutions to the questions (see section 3.2). 3.1 The option addpoints The \documentclass option addpoints, used as in \documentclass[addpoints]{exam} or \documentclass[12pt,addpoints]{exam} Page 11 enables the commands that add up the points (see sections 4.3.9, 4.7, 9.5, and 9.6) and that produce grading tables and point tables (see sections 9.1 and 9.2). This is an option, rather than the default, mainly for the sake of maintaining backward compatibility; most documents that use the exam document class should use this option. The only reason not to use the addpoints option is that this option creates an error if you include any words in an argument that assigns points to a question (see section 4.3). If addpoints is not in e▯ect you can put whatever you want in the argument for the points, but if addpoints is in e▯ect then the argument that contains the points must contain only digits and the command \half (see section 4.3.3). You can also turn addpoints on and o▯ wherever you like in the exam by using the commands \addpoints \noaddpoints Using the document class option addpoints is equivalent to giving the command \addpoints at the beginning of the exam. 3.2 The option answers If you will be typing solutions into the exam (see sections 8, 5.5, and 7.7) and you’d like the solutions to be printed on the next run oE LT X, you should include the document class option answers, as in \documentclass[answers]{exam} or \documentclass[answers,12pt]{exam} or \documentclass[12pt,addpoints,answers]{exam} Using the document class option answers is equivalent to giving the command \printanswers at the beginning of the exam (see section 8). The e▯ect of this is that ▯ the contents of the environments solution, solutionorbox, solutionorlines, and solutionordottedlines (see section 8) will be printed on the next run Ef LT X, Page 12 ▯ any choices of a choices, oneparchoices, checkboxes, or oneparcheckboxes en- vironment (see section 5) that are created using a \CorrectChoice command (see section 5.5) instead of a \choice command will be printed with emphasis as deter- mined by the argument of the most recent \CorrectChoiceEmphasis command (which by default is \bfseries), and ▯ any \answerline commands (see section 7.6) that include an optional argument con- taining the answer (see section 7.7) will have the answer printed on the answer line. 4 Questions and points To create questions, you use a questions environment (see section 4.1); each question is begun with a \question command, which takes an optional argument to assign some number of points to the question (see section 4.3). The questions are numbered automatically. Point values can include half points (see section 4.3.3). If you want a question to have several parts, you use a parts environment (see sec- tion 4.2); each part is begun with a \part command, which takes an optional argument to assign some number of points to the part (see section 4.3). The parts are numbered automatically. Similarly, parts can have subparts, and subparts can have subsubparts (see section 4.2). The points for a question (or part, or subpart, or subsubpart) appear by default at the beginning of the question (or part, etc.), but there are commands to have the points appear instead in either the left margin or in the right margin (see section 4.3.1 and sec- tion 4.3.2). The formatting of the points can also be customized (see sections 4.3.4, 4.3.5, 4.3.6, and 4.3.7). It’s also possible to have questions (or parts, etc.) that are worth \bonus points", which are added up separately from the non-bonus points (see section 4.6). 4.1 Questions To type the questions on the exam you use the questions environment. Each question is then begun with the command \question, and the questions are numbered automatically. For example, if you type \begin{questions} \question Why is there air \question How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood \question Compute $\displaystyle\int_0^1 x^2 \, dx$. Page 13 \end{questions} then you’ll get 1. Why is there air 2. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood Z 1 3. Compute x dx. 0 As the above example illustrates, you can leave blank lines between the \question com- mand and the actual beginning of the question, or before the ▯rst \question command in the environment, and they will be ignored. 4.2 Questions with parts and subparts (and subsubparts) If you want a question to have several parts, then you use the parts environment. For example, if you type \begin{questions} \question Why is there air \question What if there were no air \begin{parts} \part Describe the effect on the balloon industry. \part Describe the effect on the aircraft industry. \end{parts} \question \begin{parts} \part Define the universe. Give three examples. \part If the universe were to end, how would you know \end{parts} Page 14 \end{questions} then you’ll get 1. Why is there air 2. What if there were no air (a) Describe the e▯ect on the balloon industry. (b) Describe the e▯ect on the aircraft industry. 3. (a) De▯ne the universe. Give three examples. (b) If the universe were to end, how would you know The above example illustrates several things: ▯ Parts of a question should be put into a parts environment. ▯ If a question begins with a parts environment, then the ▯rst part will appear...

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