Lewis Symbols (Section)
(a) Write the electron configuration for the element titanium, Ti. How many valence electrons does this atom possess? (b) Hafnium, Hf, is also found in group 4B. Write the electron configuration for Hf, (c) Ti and Hf behave as though they possess the same number of valence electrons. Which of the subshells in the electron configuration of Hf behave as valence orbitals? Which behave as core orbitals?
Ethnic Studies Study Guide: Section I: Short answer identifications 1. Discuss the content and the purpose of early incarnations (manifestations) of African American (Black) Studies. [Reading: Early Black Studies Movement] • African American (Black) Studies were created in an attempt to create a sense of pride and identity for the African American community. o Black leaders expressed their hope that black children would be taught something about their past and African roots. o Collective efforts among the African American community to enhance self-respect as well as a new self image. They wanted to use negro history to foster racial pride and serve as a cure to prejudice and discrimination against Afro Americans o The first Afro-American Slaves acquired knowledge of their history from each other in secret meeting (hiding from the white man), fields, churches, etc. • Quakers created schools for blacks. o Quakers educated blacks to serve as missionaries on the African American continent. o Quakers wanted to teach free blacks of their “black history” in hopes that they would see the awful treatment they received in America and you emigrate back to Africa. • Stories of blacks (west indian blacks) defeating whites (french, spanish, english) began to emerge • President Jefferson states that he questioned the mental capacity of blacks, M. Gregorie created a list of black men and their accomplishments in response. Jefferson issued an apology. • After the reconstruction era Afro-American history gained vigor. • Societies (groups) of/for African Americans began to emerge, these helped to create a stronger sense of community and pride. • Black studies served to make black students participants in the democratic society. • Advocates of black studies hoped it would result in pride among the community. 2. What was the Chicano critique of Sociology and Anthropology in the 1970s [Reading: The Anthropology and Sociology of Mexican-Americans] • In the US all social science studies of Mexican Americans relied on the idea of “Traditional Culture” • Mexican Americans were never seen as participants in history, much less as generators of the historical process o In fact, US agriculture was/is highly dependent on Mexican labor, but because of the conditions that they were working in workers began to go on strikes. The military responded to this with deportation, however none of that is recorded. • Claims of “old studies” o Saunders: “Spanish-speaking people [have] greater readiness toward acceptance and resignation than is the characteristic of the Anglo”, “Spanish-speaking people are resigned to suffering” o Edmonson: “Hispanos give a characteristic shrug of acceptance of death and illness and inevitable.” , “…they are willing to live in failure…” o These distorted studies are widely accepted throughout the departments of sociology and anthropology throughout the US and although some might say these are older studies we still see some of the same claims in 3 widely circulated studies of Mexican- Americans still used today: • 1970’s Studies/Critiques: 1) William Madsen’s Mexican Americans (Madsen’s views) : § “Mexican Americans [are] ahistoric people who must undergo complete psychological, cultural, and personal change in order to become actual members of society” § “Misfortune is something the Latin views as fate” § “Latin lacks drive and determination” § “Mexican American tried to accept…acceptance and appreciation…primary values of la raza” § Madsen views Mexican Americans as passively fatalistic and their women as super-passively fatalistic and sado-masochistic. He claims that Mexican- American women accept being beaten by their husbands and are grateful for it. § Madsen claims that instead of striving to be better Latins “keep each other down” is someone is doing better than them through gossip, ridicule, and witchcraft. § Madsen believes Mexican-American parents are a child’s worst enemy because they are a potential threat to the “American ideals of freedom, democracy, and progress.” § Madsen believes Mexican-Americans are the generators of their problems which is why they cannot advance. 2) Celia S. Heller’s Mexican Americans (Heller’s views) : § Mexican young people lack ambition and are prone to delinquent behavior § Believes Mexican Americans are not actual Americans (among the least Americanized), she believes that “if you know one you know them all” and claims that Mexicans lack internal differentiation and are an “unusually homogenous ethnic group” § Believes Mexican Americans have a “language problem” that lasts until the 3 rd generation because their progress is retarded due to their large families § fatalism and resignation run throughout the Mexican culture § “Due to their parents’ and their parental culture…Mexican Americans…have no…self discipline because they are trained to be dependent people” § Believes parents are the child’s enemy § Believes Mexican homes discourage pursuing higher education § Believes Mexican culture results in criminal behavior *Note: Author (Romano) finds all of this ridiculous and is criticizing its inaccuracy 3) Julian Samora and Richard A. Lamanna’s Mexican Americans (Samora and Lamanna’s views) : § Mexican-Americans show fatalism and resignation in their attitudes and behavior § Mexican-Americans place their social conditions upon themselves o These studies inaccurately paint a picture of Mexican-Americans as masochistic, passive, irrational, irresponsible, politically apathetic, characteristically fatalistic, unambitious, criminally prone, un-American people. o “There has NOT been any significant change in the views of Mexican-Americans for the past 100 years…social scientist are perpetuating the same opinions of Mexican culture that were present during the Mexican-American War…these opinions were vicious, misleading, degrading and brainwashing in that they obliterate history and then rewrite it…to eliminate the historical significance of Mexican-Americans…” o Author states that: § Mexican-Americans have been and continue to be pluralistic people § Mexicans and Mexican-Americans were pioneers of the trade union movement in the American Southwest § “By 1930 the myth of the docility of Mexican labor had been thoroughly exploded…” since they rebelled against the subordinate status imposed on them o Author claims that: § the concept of “traditional culture” that is currently used by social scientists is misleading and that instead the concept of “historical culture” must be adopted § one must know something about the intellectual history of Mexican-Americans *For the purposes of this question focus on the 3 articles of the 1970s 3. What are the two primary ways that racial formation can be seen in a society Briefly define and give an example of each. • Racial Formation: violence, subjugation (suppression), and forging a social order | the socio- historical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed | the way that race is manifested in society • The manifestation of society’s racial formation can be seen in two ways: 1) Through its social structure 2) Through its cultural representation *note: social structure and representation work together! • Social Structure: the institutions in society where people interact with each other, institutions are NOT neutral places they are inflicted by class, race, and gender ex) schools, churches, workplace o Characteristics of Social Structure: § Post Reconstruction (1877) ú economic opportunity ú social and political reorganization ú racial dominance: white people (men) established racial dominance through racial violence (lynching- served to instill fear in the inferior community, humiliate, etc.) racial ideology (non-white is inferior), social control (sexual violence/rape) § CA Gold Rush (1849) ú economic opportunity ú social and political reorganization ú racial dominance: white people (men) established racial dominance o Racial violence was used to establish certain racial formations: § white supremacy § economic subjugation ex) Asian American (particular chinese) are more likely to achieve economic success rather than political success § political dominance • Cultural (Racial) Representation: the way in which racial minorities are represented in the popular imagery o Joaquin Murrieta: high profile California bandit who went against white society (Robin Hood figure) he took from the white and gave to the poor 4. How was racial violence manifested in California in the early twentieth century What was the result of such violence What was the impact on the racial formation during that time period [Reading: Searching for CA Hanging Trees] • This article looks at how lynching was a prominent issue during the CA Gold Rush, but it was actively avoided and over looked • Ordinary Case: A woman was robbed at her store, there were no witnesses bu t someone claimed it was 15 year old Hispanic boy Francisco Cota, he was stabbed and hung with a rope by a group of Anglos. All other legal options were ignored • “Native Americans, Chinese, Latinos or Mexican and Latin American descents, as well as African Americans, were all lynched in California” • “public killings were guided by anti-immigration sentiments, fear of miscegenation (marriage or cohabitation between two people from different racial groups), a deep frustration with the judicial system, and in combination with white supremacy” • lynching ignored the constitution, by lynching cases were denied basic rights (right to trial by jury, no double jeopardy, no person shall be deprived of life liberty or property without due process of law) • judges were not readily available, sometimes they were days away so people took matters into their own hands meaning there was no fair trial, if someone thought you were guilty you were • In regards to the Gold Rush/Gold Fields: o American Indians were constantly being removed from their lands and into reservations o Chinese immigrants were driven from their claims and denied the ability to own land o Those who lived on Mexican/Spanish land grants lost their privileges o Mining towns gave rise to new cities, communities that were non-white were regularly targeted by exclusionary acts o There were camps names (chinese camp, poverty hill, yankee hill, nigger hill, murder bar) that mapped out the new economic and political landscape • lynching and other forms of community violence were deeply linked to the formation of our nation • lynching served as a powerful catalyst for race, ethnicity, and national identity • lynching became associated with African Americans and as something that only occurred in Southern states, but this is inaccurate and that is was this article tries to prove • racial violence: lynching ^ • result: fear among communities, aura of anglo superiority • impact on racial formation: laid out where each “community” stood, “each community was forced to create separate markets, schools, and economies each with varying success attempting to provide opportunities for it’s members” | violence against non-anglos established their place in society 5. How did women experience racial violence differently than men in the early twentieth century Give one example from either Davis or Smith to support your answer. [Reading: Conquest, Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide | Smith] (Response focuses on the Smith Article) • Both Native men and women were subjected to a reign of sexualized terror, however it affects men and women differently in the sense that when a native woman suffer abuse it is an attack on her as both a native AND a woman. • Issues of color, race, and gender oppression are present when a native woman suffered racial violence. • Indians were described as being the dirtiest human being on earth, that their bodies were polluted with sexual sin. In the eyes of the colonizers natives were marked by their sexual perversity and because their bodies were dirty they were “rapable”. (rape of bodies that are impure/dirty does not count) • Indians who survived sexual abuse would no longer want to be Indian. • It is argued that white men abused Native women as a strategy to maintain control over white women, suppress indigenous nations, and inscribe hierarchy and domination on the bodies of the colonized. 6. What was the significance of the Johnson Reed Act of 1924 to the racial formation of the United States in the twentieth century • The Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 contributed to the rise of restrictive immigration and strengthened the notion that the nation should have hierarchies of race and nationality. • Nativists wanted to change the quotas of immigration in order to make the white race stronger aka the majority • Racial Implications of the JRA: o JRA promoted the value of whiteness to citizenship, being white becomes incredibly important in order to be a citizen o Important: 2 cases that involve a Japanese immigrant and an Indian immigrant, they sure the gov’t because then can’t become citizens, claims: 1) Ozawa: “I should be considered white because I have been in the US since I was a child, I speak perfect English, I went to UC Berkley, I should be able to naturalize!” Supreme Court says no. 2) Thind: “Scientifically if you look at my family history I am just as European as any white man, so I should be able to naturalize!” Supreme Court says no. • People began to want to be white in order to have access to opportunities. People were not focusing on their value as humans regardless of their race/phenotype, they were instead claiming to be white because that was what was necessary in order to succeed in this country. • White was the ideal. 7. Discuss either the Thind or Ozawa Supreme court cases. What was the basis of their claims to “whiteness” Why were they trying to claim whiteness • Important: 2 cases that involve a Japanese immigrant and an Indian immigrant, they sure the gov’t because then can’t become citizens, claims: 1) Ozawa: “I should be considered white because I have been in the US since I was a child, I speak perfect English, I went to UC Berkley, I should be able to naturalize!” Supreme Court says no. 2) Thind: “Scientifically if you look at my family history I am just as European as any white man, so I should be able to naturalize!” Supreme Court says no. • People began to want to be white in order to have access to opportunities. People were not focusing on their value as humans regardless of their race/culture/phenotype, they were instead claiming to be white because that was what was necessary in order to succeed in this country. • White was the ideal. • At this point people were accepting the “American culture”/view of what a legal citizen was, they were not challenging it. 8. How did the federal government shape residential segregation • The federal government’s role was assigning market values to homes (appraisals), granting loans, and developing housing covenants (contracts). • The FHA (Federal Housing Association) was in charge of appraising houses to determine th eir value. • The FHA developed the idea of “Redlining” which categorized any house that was in an African American neighborhood or a house where African Americans had previously lived. Redlined areas were bad areas, because African Americans lived near by the price of housing decreased. • Residential Segregation determines what kinds of houses you can buy, where we sit in theaters, separate water fountains, where students of color can go to school, public transportation, etc. Government helped to shape this through the “separate but equal policies”. Through granting loans to certain individuals and not to others, through changing the value of a house depending on what kinds of people lived there, through instilling polices that bluntly painted a distinction between African Americans and Caucasians. 9. What is de facto segregation How did Mexicans experience racial segregation in the early 20 thcentury Give one structural example. [Reading: Establishing A Culture of Segregation] • de facto segregation: a situation in which legislation did not overtly segregate individuals by race, but nevertheless segregation continued (segregation by popular opinion, sneaky) • de jure segregation: segregated by legislation, because the law says so • From the article: o The Anglo Community of La Feria feared the social and cultural impact that the Mexican population would have, as a result they chose to implement de facto segregation in an attempt to completely separate the Mexican Community from the Anglo Community. o The “Mexican Problem”: § Anglo settlers did not want the Mexican people to have a social/cultural impact on their community, despite the fact that the Mexican people were the backbone of the new economy. o La Feria instituted de facto segregation to address the “Mexican Problem”, how § Separate Housing ú Anglos on the South of the Railroad tracks, Anglos had larger homes, paved streets, government resources such as the city hall ú Mexicans on the North of the Railroad tracks, smaller homes, unpaved streets, they had a common toilet in the middle which they all used, the only city building on their side was the city jail § Racial Division in Catholic Churches ú Anglos on the left pews, Mexicans on the right § Separate Schools for Children ú Separate until 3 Grade, then “integrated” ú Only English was taught/spoken ú educate children, but not too much so they remain subordinate ú as children became older they began to drop out of school o As a result of de facto segregation, the implemented spatial separation solidified racial boundaries. § there was an overall acceptable of “Anglo Superiority” among the community 10. What is eugenics and how was it mobilized against women of color in the middle and late twentieth century Discuss either Native women or Mexican origin women in your answer. [Addressing Mexican women] • Eugenics: idea that the people that weren’t fit/inferior we had to sterilize them, they considered any non-white person inferior • Documentary: “No Mas Bebes”/”No More Babies” o LA County USC Medical Center: they would sterilize women without telling them, they just had them sign the consent form w/o explaining what they were signing *Note: this was occurring on other places as well, however the documentary cover what occurred at the LA County USC Medical Center o It was the working class women who were being sterilized o Mexican/Hispanic women were coming in to deliver their babies when they were told that they had to have a c-section or both they and their babies would die o these women were told to sign a consent form, but were never thoroughly explained what they were signing or that their tube would be tied and cut o the people were going to the county hospital which didn’t have the resources necessary, the doctors were the students, they didn’t speak the language of the patients so communication was a problem o the doctors said they were doing this because of the fear of over population, BUT they weren’t actually targeting the population, they were targeting those of lower social class that they deemed inferior