Consider the following molecular shapes: (a) Match each

Principles of General Chemistry | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780073511085 | Authors: Martin S. Silberberg

Problem 81P Chapter 10

Principles of General Chemistry | 2nd Edition

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Principles of General Chemistry | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780073511085 | Authors: Martin S. Silberberg

Principles of General Chemistry | 2nd Edition

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Problem 81P

Consider the following molecular shapes:

(a)   Match each shape with one of the following species: XeF3+, SbBr3, GaCl3.

(b)   Which, if any, is polar?

(c)   Which has the most valence electrons around the cental atom?

Step-by-Step Solution:

Solution 81P:

Step 1: (a)

Here, we are going to match the shape of the species.

For determining the shape, we have to use  VSEPR theory.

The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is based on the electron groups around the central atom.

An electron group can be an electron pair, a lone pair, a single unpaired electron, a double bond or a triple bond on the center atom. VSEPR theory can help to predict the shape of a molecule.

According to VSEPR theory,

The geometry of a molecule is determined by the number of electron groups on the central atom.The number of electron groups is determined from the Lewis structure of the molecule.The geometry of the electron groups is determined by their repulsions

Lone pair–lone pair >  lone pair–bonding pair >  bonding pair–bonding pair

Lewis structure of  XeF3+:

Valence electrons of Xe is 8 (Group VIIIA)

Valence electrons of F is 7 (Group VIIA)

Total valence electrons of XeF3+ is (37 +8 -1 =28)

Here, each Xe atom is surrounded by five electron groups around it. Therefore, its electron-group arrangement is trigonal bipyramidal. Thus, the molecular shape of XeF3+ is T-shape due to presence of lone pair of electrons

Therefore, the ideal angle for F-Xe-F is <90o.

Thus, XeF3+  matches with the diagram A.

Step 2:

Lewis structure of  SbBr3:

Valence electrons of Sb is 5 (Group VA)

Valence electrons of Br is 7 (Group VIIA)

Total valence electrons of SbBr3 is (37 +5 =26)

Here, each Sb atom is surrounded by four electron groups around it. Therefore, its electron-group arrangement is tetrahedral. Thus, the molecular shape of SbBr3 is trigonal pyramidal due to presence of lone pair of electrons

Therefore, the ideal angle for Cl-Sb-Cl is <109.5o.

Thus, SbBr3  matches with the diagram C.

Step 3:

Lewis structure of  GaCl3:

Valence electrons of Ga is 3 (Group IIIA)

Valence electrons of Cl is 7 (Group VIIA)

Total valence electrons of GaCl3 is (37 +3 =24)

Here, each Ga atom is surrounded by three electron groups around it. Therefore, its electron-group arrangement is trigonal planar. Thus, the molecular shape of GaCl3 is trigonal planar.

Therefore, the ideal angle for Cl-Ga-Cl is 120o.

Thus, GaCl3  matches with the diagram B.

Step 4 of 5

Chapter 10, Problem 81P is Solved
Step 5 of 5

Textbook: Principles of General Chemistry
Edition: 2nd
Author: Martin S. Silberberg
ISBN: 9780073511085

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