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Lewis Structures; Resonance Structures (Sections)Based on

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 56E Chapter 8

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 56E

Problem 56E

Lewis Structures; Resonance Structures (Sections)

Based on Lewis structures, predict the ordering, from shortest to longest, of N—O bond lengths in NO+, NO2 –, and NO3–

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Sleep Cycles 03/28/2016 ▯ Endogenous Cycles  Circadian rhythm also regulates the frequency of eating and drinking, body temperature, secretion of hormones, urination, and sensitivity to drugs o This also affects our mood ▯ Setting and Resetting the Biological Clock  The purpose of the circadian rhythm is to keep our internal workings in phase with the outside world  Human circadian clock generates a rhythm slightly longer than 24 hours when It has no external cue to it  Resetting our circadian rhythms is something necessary  Zeitgeber: refers to the stimulus that resets the circadian rhythm ▯ Mechanisms of the Biological Clock:  Two types of genes are responsible for generating the circadian rhythm: o Period: produce proteins called PER o Timeless: produce proteins called TIM  Typically use EEG to measure brain activity while sleeping ▯ Brain Activity During Sleep  Rapid eye movement: paradoxical sleep  Muscles relax, heart rate increases  Breathing is rapid and shallow  Vivid Dreaming ▯ ▯ Lateralization of function refers to the idea that each hemisphere of the brain is specialized for different functions ▯ ▯ Cutting the Corpus Callosum  Epilepsy is a condition characterized by repeated episodes of excessive synchronized neural activity (effects 1-2% of people) o Mainly due to decrease release of GABA  Sperry (1974) revealed subtle behavioral differences for split brain people  Left brain hemisphere is dominant for language  Immediately after surgery, each hemisphere can only quickly and accurately respond to information that reaches it directly  The brain later learns to use the smaller connections  Integrating information between both remains difficult ▯ ▯ The Right Hemisphere  Right hemisphere is better at perceiving emotions  Damage to the right hemisphere causes difficulty perceiving other’s emotions, failure to understand humor and sarcasm, and a monotone voice  Left hemisphere damage increases ability to accurately judge emotion o Associated with decreased interference from the left hemisphere ▯ Development of Lateralization and Handedness ▯ Development  Corpus Callosum matures and gradually grows childhood through adolescence (e.g. myelination) o Young children have difficult comparing information from the left and right hand o Research suggests that children younger than 6 do not have a mature corpus callosum ▯ Evolution and Physiology of Language  Human language is a complex form of communication  Compared to other species, human language has high productivity o Productivity: the ability to improvise new combinations of signals to represent new ideas ▯ Nonhuman Precursors of Language  Chimpanzees use language but it differs from humans: o Seldom use symbols in new original combinations o Use of symbols lacks productivity o Use of symbols is primarily used to request and not describe ▯ ▯ How did Humans Evolve Language  By product of overall brain development o Language deficits of normal intelligence o Normal Language of impaired intelligence  Brain Specialization o Language acquisition device o Most children develop language  Sensitive Period (from birth to ~6y) o 6 M: Syllables o 1 Y: a few words o 1 Y 9 M: a few phrases o 2 Y: almost developed  Second language  No cut off  After age 12: rarely gain fluency equal to a native speaker ▯ Brain Damage and Language  Broca’s area is a part of the frontal lobe of the left cerebral cortex near the motor cortex o Damage results in some language disability  Aphasia refers to a condition in which there is a severe language impairment  Broca’s (non-fluent) aphasia: o Serious impairment in language production  Also have comprehension deficits when sentence structure is complicated  Omission of most pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs, tenses  Wernicke’s (fluent) aphasia: impaired language comprehension and ability to remember the names of objects  Typical characteristics of Wernicke’s aphasia include: o Articulate/fluent speech except with pauses to find the right word o Anomia refers to the difficulty recalling the name of objects o Poor language comprehension: difficulty understanding spoken and written speech (especially nouns and verbs) ▯ Brain Activity Associated with Consciousness  Binocular rivalry – are slow gradual shifts of the eye sweeping from one to another ▯ Attention  Attention: ability to detect and respond to stimuli  At the Psychological Level: Attention implies a preferential allocation of processing resources and response channels to events that have become behaviorally relevant  At the neural level: attention refers to alternations in the selectivity, intensity, and duration of neuronal responses to such events ▯ Bottom Up Processing – a reaction to stimulus  Starts with unprocessed sensory information and builds toward more conceptual representation  A deer coming out of no where while driving ▯ Top Down Processing: is intentional  Processing in which conceptual knowledge influences the processing or interpretation of lower perceptual processing  Depends on prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex  Example: stroop effect ▯ The reticular Activating System (RAS)  Arousal and wakefulness  Sleep-wake cycle  Damage to the RAS can produce reduced attention confusional state or coma ▯ Parietal Lobe  Important for visual and spatial aspects of attention and general attentional resources  Top down processing ▯ Frontal Lobe  Important for complex aspects of attention  Executive Control of attention  can inhibit the more reflexive aspects of attention  Top Down processing ▯ ▯ Unilateral Neglect  Damage to SPL: neglect to the left side of objects  Damage to IPL: neglect of everything to the left of their own body  Many patients with spatial neglect also have deficits with spatial working memory and with shifting attention, even when location is irrelevant ▯ ▯ Memory Disorders ▯ Amnesia  Two common types of brain damage include: o Korsakoff’s syndrome o Alzheimer’s Disease  Korsakoffs’ Syndrome o A severe memory disorder due to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat) o It affects 1-2% of the population o Causes Chronic Alcoholism o Severe malnutrition o Medical Conditions  Signs of encephalophy: <20% of normal levels ▯ Alzheimers Disease  Dementia – substantial memory loss and cognitive abilities  Alzheimer’s Disease – most common cause of dementia  Age related  Gender is not a risk factor  50% of people over 85 and 5% of people 65-74  Early onset seems to be influenced by genes, by 99% of cases are late onset  About half of the people with late onset have no known relative with the disease  Plaques: structures formed from degenerating neurons  Tangles: structures formed from degenerating structures within a neuronal body ▯ Amyloid Plaques  Beta-Amyloid build up occurs when amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by two enzymes in cell membrane o ApoE normally helps breakdown Beta-amyloid   Mental Illness  Biological Predisposition  Environment  Mental Disorders  Mood Disorders: an emotional disturbance such as severe depression or depression alternating with manic stress o MDD: Major Depression Disorder (extreme sadness)  Sad and helpless everyday for weeks and includes the following characteristics –  Little Energy  Little Pleasure  Suicidal  Sleepless  Concentration  Hopeless  Worthless o Bipolar: Between happiness and extreme sadness o Incidence  10% Lifetime Prevalence  Boy=Girl (no gender bias)  Genes & Environment  Heritability – moderate  Genes: associated with anxiety disorders, ADHD, OCD, substance abuse disorders, bulimia, migraine headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, and several other conditions  Risk is elevated among relatives of people with early onset depression  Predisposition depends on a variety of genes  Effects of these genes have varied between studies  The gene for the serotonin transporter protein o Controls the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) o s/s: an increased likelihood of depression after stressful events  Alter peoples’ reactions to stressful events  Make them more sensitive to environmental influences  Although these results were promising, they have failed to replicate  Stressful events may even mean different things to each participant, and the measurement for the short vs. long form of the genes have been inaccurate in many cases  Should await research with better measurements  Brain Structure and Function  Disruption of circadian & sleep patterns is common in depression o Increases in likelihood of depression o Sleep deprivation: the quickest method (brief) o More practical solution: go to sleep earlier so that patient gets eight hours of sleep (longer)  Antidepressant Drugs  Monoamine activity and serotonin activity o People who commit suicide have lower concentrations of serotonin in the brain and CSF  Atypical Antidepressants  Serotonin: digestion, pain, sleep, mental clarity, and other bodily functions o Side effects: nausea, insomnia, restlessness, weight gain, tremors, sleepiness, diarrhea, constipation, headaches  Atypical Antidepressants: with antidepressant effects but mild side effects o Ex. Bupropion (wllbutrin)  Works by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine and to some extend norepinephrine but not serotonin  Other medications  People with depression have lower than average BDNF (brain- derives neurotropic factor): important for synaptic activity o Depression w/ lower BDNF  Less Hippocampal Neurons  smaller hippocampus  impaired learning  Clinical Implications  Effectiveness is limited  Even without treatment, people tend to recover within a few months  Many depressed people respond well to placebos o In particular, young people; mild-moderate cases  Some people do not respond well to antidepressants at all, regardless of severity  Other than Medication  Psychotherapy o Antidepressants ineffective for sufferers of childhood neglect or abuse o Psychotherapy more likely to reduce relapse months or years later  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) o Electrical shock to the brain o A larger rate or replase  Meditation/Exercise   Type 1 – Bipolar Disorder  (Full Blown episodes of mania) – 1%   Type 2 – Bipolar Disorder  (Hypomania – Anxiety % Agitation) – 1%   Men = Women   Creativity  Has been linked to enhanced activity o Poet William Blake o Composers  Genes and the Environment  Genes play significant role o Concordance rate of 85% o Among families with MDD, bipolar disorder is 3-4 times more common than among families with no history of psychopathology  Dietary influence o Omega 3-fatty acids (found in fish) o Lithium salts  Treatment  Sleep is also related to bipolar disorder  Patients sleep a lot during the depressive period and sleep very little during mania  A consistent sleep schedule can reduce the intensity of mood swings  Seasonal Affective Disorder  SAD is a form of depression that regularly occurs during a particular season  Most people with SAD have mutations on genes responsible for regulating circadian rhythms  Schizophrenia: Historical Perspectives  People have always feared “abnormal” behaviors, often relating them with evil, imprisoning those affected and acting aggressively and decisively  It is a disorder characterized by deteriorating ability to function in everyday life for at least six months o Symptoms  Positive Symptoms: behaviors that are present that should not be present  Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behaviors  Often acute  More likely to respond to antipsychotic medications  Negative Symptoms: behaviors that are absent that should be present  Weak or absent emotion, speech, and socialization  Usually stable over time and difficult to treat  Cognitive Symptoms: limitations of thought and reasoning  Genetics and Environment  Monozygotic twins have a much higher concordance rate (agreement) than dizygotic twins  Greater similarity between twins than siblings suggests a prenatal/postnatal environmental effect  Prenatal/Neonatal Environment  Poor Nutrition  Stress  Infection  Complication in delivery  Season of birth  Premature birth  Low birth weight  Blood type  Head injury  Early Development  Signs at an earlier age  Prefrontal cortex damage may not show signs of damage until later   Brain Abnormalities: Left v. Right  Strong deficits (Decreased volume) found in the left temporal and frontal lobe  Differences in lateralization include the right planum temporal of the temporal lobe being the same size or larger than the left   Dopamine hypothesis – schizophrenia is caused by excess dopamine (DA) activity in certain areas of the brain – e.g. Nucleus Accumbens   The mesolimbocortical system: site where drugs that block dopamine synapses product their benefits  The mesotriatal system: results in Tardive Dyskinesia   Glutamate Hypothesis  Schizophrenia is associated with lower than normal release of glutamate and fewer receptors in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus  Second generation antipsychotics (atypical psychotics): increase glutamate o Down-regulate the glutamate transporter gene, which decreases reuptake of glutamate  Schizophrenia cannot be explained by a single gene or neurotransmitter

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 8, Problem 56E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. This full solution covers the following key subjects: structures, lewis, ordering, Bond, longest. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions. The answer to “Lewis Structures; Resonance Structures (Sections)Based on Lewis structures, predict the ordering, from shortest to longest, of N—O bond lengths in NO+, NO2 –, and NO3–” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 25 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. Since the solution to 56E from 8 chapter was answered, more than 361 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 56E from chapter: 8 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM.

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