Considering the nonmetals, what is the relationship between the group number for an element (carbon, for example, belongs to group 4A; see the periodic table on the inside front cover) and the number of single covalent bonds that element needs to form to conform to the octet rule?
COMM 131 Notes August 29th Speech Anxiety *It can be a positive * When asked if she gets nervous, Carol Channing (actress on Broadway) said “The day I don’t get nervous is the day I quit. Every performance is a different audience. I have to connect with them, I don’t know how to deal with them or how they will react. If I was content with myself my performances would become flat.” What Can You Do *Be prepared Come into class knowing that you have done the best you can (gives you a level of comfort) *Have a strong introduction (know your audience well) *Use notes Don’t rely on them too heavily (safety blanket) *Select a topic you’re interested in (be enthusiastic) Already know some of it (increase knowledge on subject) *Use relaxing techniques (take deep breathes) *Hold on to the edge *No one sees your nervousness *Know yourself and your strengths *Practice your speech (out loud) *Know your audience *Use the power of positive thinking September 3rd Communication Theory *Nobody understands a message the same way, because we all have different experiences, perspectives, shaped by how you’ve been taught (family, school, friends, movies, TV), more than one meaning. Generational differences (can make communication difficult) *More communication not always better *Situations where it’s best not to communicate more Facebook Arguments (know when to stop) *Who determines the meaning of the communication: The listener *Communication: The process of humans exchanging ideas, information, and emotions through symbolic behavior. The process includes both verbal and nonverbal communication, and includes intrapersonal communication (within yourself) Noise Channel(s) Sender Encodes Message Decodes Receiver (repeat) (gets feedback) *Noise: Anything that is a distraction to the message Physical noise Psychological noise (hunger, worrying, etc.) *The environment (Frame of reference) Where you’re from, what’s going on in the present, what might happen in the future (family, neighborhood, religion, etc.) Everything takes place within a context / setting Changes how we communicate (this classroom = more formal, lecture hall = less formal) Changes how you talk in different places *Ethnocentrism: The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures (Americans) September 5th Audience Analysis *Being audience – centered Keep your audience in mind What does the audience want to hear What do they already know Not so much of what we want to tell them *Identification (form a bond) Hard to do if you don’t know anything about them *Egocentrism: The people in your audience are concerned with their own values, ideas, beliefs, etc. (react more positively to things that connect and that will help them) Most interested in things that affect them Demographic Analysis: Describing them as a group (taking away the individual) Stereotyping: Assuming all members of the group are alike Don’t want to oversimplify or say its fixed (generalization) *Different Things to Include in Determining Your Topic Demographics: A series of stable characteristics about an audience that might include Age Gender Religious background Sexual orientation Economic level Racial / Ethnic / Cultural background Culture: A learned system of beliefs, behaviors shared by a group High context: Nonverbal message very important (Italy, Japan, China, Asia) Low context: Words important (U.S., Germany, Switzerland, Australia) High power: Levels of power are very distinct so that bosses and supervisors would not mingle with employees. (Military) Low power: Blurs the distinction between power levels. (Distinction is more subtle) Ethnicity: Cultural background that comes from a national or religious heritage Race: A person’s biological heritage Group membership Marital status Knowledge and Interest level *Situational Analysis Know how big your audience is / room size *Audience’s interest in your subject Voluntary (choose to come) Captive (have to come) Passersby (not expecting to come) Only way to find out (survey / questionnaire / observe the audience / ask the person that invites you) 1 to 5 scale Open ended Yes / No / Maybe Once you have all this information Use it to write your speech Hook people Connect with their interests Adapt your speech September 12th Introductory Speech Guidelines *Not timed *Short speech *Audience taking notes about things speaker says (Audience Analysis) *Speak slowly enough so everyone can take the notes Introduction 1. Need to say who I am 2. Name of person I’m introducing 3. Need to tell the audience what I’m doing (I would like to tell you about Patrick because I thought he was interesting) Body Enough information for the audience to write their analysis on Easy to understand Group things that are similar WARNING: Be careful not to go to fast when listing things Always keep in mind that audience is keeping notes Transition sentence into conclusion Conclusion Strong finish Fascinated by . . . etc. One or two sentences Thank you will be my exit Ask if can be humorous, use notes Never conclude speech with: That’s it, I’m done Delivery Speak slow enough to let them take notes Speak loudly enough for everyone to hear Eye contact at least 5 times (8 times to be safe) Use your eye contact to see if writing too fast Speaking from notes (number notecards) (make intro, body and conclusion different colors) (sheet of paper or notes*) Write big Posture: stand tall (straight) Ethics and Public Speaking *Difference between free and ethical speech Free Speech: any speech protected by law (1 amendment) Ethical Speech: Communication that is honest, accurate, and serves the best interest of the audience (This class) Ethical behavior can be seen as a continuum made up of degrees of ethnicity. One extreme is ethical or moral behavior and the opposite extreme is unethical and immoral behavior. Ethical faults are behaviors which fall on the unethical and immoral side of the continuum Ethical Faults: 1. Honesty/Dishonesty Deliberate lying Withholding information Withholding opposing arguments Withholding the source of the evidence Not disclosing private motives or special interests 2. Pandering: telling the audience what they want to hear, when what they want to hear is wrong or not what you believe 3. Accuracy/Inaccuracy Ignorant misstatement Reporting opinion Reporting rumors as truth 4. Plagiarism Failure to attribute the source of a piece of evidence Failure to attribute the source of an idea Global, patchwork, and incremental plagiarism Reverse plagiarism: saying someone or some source said something when he or she did not 5. Statistics Manipulate the statistics so they sound better than warranted Incorrect use of: Mode (most frequent value) Mean (arithmetic average) Median (the point at which 50% of the values are greater and 50% of the values are less) Average (not clarifying which of the definitions is being used) 6. Logical and rational arguments/Illogical and irrational arguments Irrational claims and illogical claims and evidence Accurate evidence which only indirectly or partially supports the claim Emotional appeals which hinder the truth *Concept of Civility Civility: allows us to participate in the public dialogue Public dialogue: the civil exchange of ideas and opinions among communities about topics that affect the public Allows us to recognize the influence of culture on speaking styles: Nationality (country we grew up in) Ethnicity heritage (Italian American) *The Power and Influence of Public Speaking Because public speaking influences others, it requires an ethical approach of activity Civility means: The care and concern for others The thoughtful use of words and language The flexibility to see many sides of an issue Triangle of Meaning User (communicator) Word (symbol) Thing (referent) September 17th September 19th Audience Analysis Paper (Due Thursday) 23 Pages Double spaced 1. Describe the characteristics of the audience (taking the individual information that we got and grouped it all together) 2. Analyze the characteristics (what does this mean for the speaker) (Describe then analyze) (This speaker would need to talk like this to appeal to the audience) (How will a speaker use this information) Group information to get a picture of the audience (cultural/ethnic backgrounds) (Open to different ideas / cultural values) What does this mean Cover Page: Title Name of author Date Introduction: Identify the audience you are describing, Mrs. Ventre’s COMM 131 11AM, why do we identify the analysis. (Can use “I”) Transition Body: Don’t give raw data, group them together. Do paragraphs or lists and charts. Conclusion: Briefly summarize (pick out 4 to 6 characteristics that a speaker should keep in mind when speaking to this audience), Chapter 3: Listening *2 Things we do with our ears and our brain 1. Hear: Not processing the information (physiological) 2. Listening: The process of selecting from all the noise you hear, attending or paying attention, understanding, remembering. (Selecting, Attending, Understanding, Remembering) When we listen we select the sounds we should be listening too, paying attention and giving them meaning Active not passive Increases heart rate (work) If you listen hard in class all day (burning 30 more calories in class listening) *4 Kinds of listening 1. Appreciative: listening for fun 2. Empathic: listening for emotions or sympathy 3. Comprehensive: listening for information / to understand Decide to listen Remove distractions / Resist distractions Withhold judgment Be a selfish listener (look for something of interest to you / relates to you) Try to listen for key ideas Only take notes on key ideas (examples help explain or make things clearer) Try to anticipate what the speaker is going to say (stay focused) Reword in your head what the speaker just said (speaker’s ideas in your words) Ask questions Helps to summarize in your head Separate the speaker from the message Try to focus on the message, don’t let the speaker’s habits affect the way you receive it Decide whether or not to take notes Be an active listener Reorganize, Rephrase, Repeat Most important: Treat the speaker courteously (be polite) 4. Critical: listening to evaluate (find out the speaker’s message) Do all of the above for Comprehensive listening Look at the speaker’s credibility (training, experience, position of authority, ability to explain clearly) Is the speaker impartial or bias Evaluate the evidence given (accurate, true, relevant, is there enough, source reliable or subjective, relevant) Is the information uptodate (current) Is the emotional appeal taking over the reasonable appeal Is the emotion honest Is it warranted Is it trying to cover up a weak argument Short Informative / Demonstration Speeches (47 min long) *Tells us about a topic *Informs, explains *Demonstration Speeches Verbal or teaching someone how to do something Explain how something operates Demonstrating how to do something September 24th Take pictures of each step if demonstrating Visual aids are required Oral citations (author and where information was found) Speak from notes If you read speech, it drops a letter grade. Make sure you can see what you’re looking at PICTURES When using visual aids, make sure visuals illustrate the main points you are making or be used to explain something that audience might not get Selecting a Topic (how to keep a professional baseball field well kept) Know yourself What are you interested in Enthusiasm Do you want to show or tell What are you comfortable with Something I know about Something you would like to know more about Pick something the audience would be interested in *General Purpose 1. To perform 2. To entertain 3. To inform (this class) *Specific Purpose Guideline when developing outline Says what you want the audience to get from the speech Does my purpose meet the assignment Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted Is the purpose relevant to my audience Is the purpose too trivial for my audience Is the purpose too technical for my audience Format: After hearing my speech, the audience will understand, and know 3 actions each of them can take to slow global warming Complete sentence Statement, never a question Use concrete, specific language One distinct idea Not vague or too general *Central Idea (only thing that is actually said in the speech) Thesis statement for your speech One sentence summary of the main idea of your speech Same format as specific purpose Guidelines: Main points of the speech Where you get your information Use experience and personal knowledge Traditional sources (books, magazines, newspapers = reliable sources) Be aware of what kind of source you are using (bias) *Evaluating Internet Sources How do we know whether they are acceptable or not 1. What’s the purpose (to provide information / promote a position / selling a product) 2. What kind of site is it (.com / .org / .edu) 3. Who’s the author (credentials) September 26th Interviewing Define your purpose Decide who you want to interview Decide if you want to use a tape recorder (illegal to tape someone without permission) Positive: Not as much pressure on you while taking notes, exact quotes Negative: Hard to find the specific information, may inhibit interview in the beginning Prepare questions ahead of time Main questions (followup questions come later) Be on time and respectful Dress appropriately Your job to keep the interview on track (don’t stay too long) Review your notes as soon as you can after the interview Rewrite them or elaborate on them Start research early When taking notes, make sure your recording the sources Make sure it’s a quote or paraphrase Supporting your ideas Suggested number of points in a speech: 2 key points (minimum), 5 (maximum) If you state your central idea and main points (2 minutes) Supporting ideas used to explain key points, make them understandable / meaningful / memorable Using examples (3 types) To personalize and reinforce Vivid and richly textured Practice delivery with examples Descriptions and explanations Avoid too much Definitions (only when needed, understandable, don’t use too many) 1. Brief: Selfexplanatory 2. Extended: Long, descriptive, that develops throughout the whole speech 3. Hypothetical (not true but gets the point across) *Comparisons and Analogies Comparisons: Comparing something to another thing (comparing to something the audience can relate too) Analogy: Comparing something the audience is familiar with, with something the audience is not familiar with *Statistics Surrounded by statistics Make sure the statistics used are clear, the audience can easily understand, and are not misleading Represents the group (representative) Mean, median, mode Reliable source Primary: Original collector of information Secondary: Wrote a report about the primary source Can be very impressive (strong impression on audience) Look for unbiased, accurately sourced stats Don’t use too many If number is large or more than two, audience must see and hear it. Can round off stats 1. Compacting a statistic: Get a big number and reduce it 2. Explode a statistic: Makes statistic bigger, which makes it more impressive *Select interesting supporting material 1. Magnitude (bigger is better) 2. Proximity (relates to your audience / close to home) 3. Concreteness (make sure examples are concrete, visual) 4. Variety (don’t use all of the same kinds) 5. Humor 6. Suitability (won’t offend audience members) October 1st Informative / Demonstrative Speech (October 15 ) th Testimony: quoting or paraphrasing someone Expert: quoting or paraphrasing an expert in the field (broad) Peer: not an expert, but just experienced it (specific) *Quoting vs. Paraphrasing You quote someone when it is exactly what you are looking for and you can build of it Paraphrase: condense what is being said (better understanding) Chapter 8: Citing Sources Orally All speeches need to have orally cited citations Reporters name, what they do, where you got it from, date, when talked to person Most of my background information came from … (only one source) Model citations after one’s in book (pg. 161) Chapter 9: Organizing a Speech Organizing in a way to help your audience Organizing main points in your speech General purpose, specific purpose, central idea (25 main points) *Tips: Keep key points separate Try to keep same wording for each main point (shows organizational pattern) Balance between main points When organizing material: primacy and recency Ways to organize information Chronologically: first to last (story / history / directions / instructions / least important most important) Spatial: talking about things in order they occur in space (things nearby) (maps / battlefields) Cause and Effect: Make connection between cause and effect very clear (have to be directly related) Problem Solution: what you’re trying to solve what you select to be your solution (have to be directly related) (if temporary explain why) Topically: no particular order main points need to be in (order that flows naturally for you) Primacy Theory: the first thing you hear, makes the biggest impression. Most important = first in speech Recency Theory: the last thing you hear is the most likely thing to remember. Most important = last in speech Specificity: General Specific or Specific General Complexity: Simple Complex Evidence: Soft Hard Soft = Opinions / Inferences / Emotions Hard = Facts / Statistics *Connectives Any word or phrase that connect the ideas in the speech, so you can see the connection with them *Transition A kind of connective, a word or phrase that says the speaker is finished with one thought and moving on to the next (sentences or phrases) Next / Finally / In Addition *Internal Previews / Summaries Internal Preview: inside the speech, telling your audience what you are going to talk about Internal Summary: used when topic is complex, so you review what you have gone over *Signposts Brief, help focus your attention, lets audience know where you are (First / Second / Third / “Not in text” / Nonverbal voice, gesture, pause, walking around for different points) October 3rd Chapter 10 – Beginning and Concluding a Speech *Beginning 1. Get the audience’s attention (ask a question / begin with a quote / use humor / short story or anecdote / dramatic statement) 2. Establish your credibility (wait until everyone is silence / eye contact / sound and look confident) Stand tall / look at your audience / big, strong voice / be prepared / dress appropriately (Ravens polo) / set the tone / develop a rapport with your audience 3. Introduce the Topic 4. State the central idea (previewing what you’re saying in your speech) 5. Transition sentence into body of speech Keep intro brief Be creative Don’t try to word intro exactly until you are finished the body of your speech Can write out introduction word for word (strong voice, read slowly, eye contact) Wait until audience is calm *Conclusion (really important) The long speech (ask audience if they have any questions at end of the body) (more than 10 min) 1. Prepare the audience for the conclusion (must use signpost or transition) 2. Restate your central idea in a strong way 3. Summarize main points 4. Above all, make it strong and memorable (must plan it) Not too abrupt Make sure not to ramble (go on to long) Refer to introduction Keep audience’s interests in mind Visual Aids (Speech Aids) Things / objects / you can show it / photographs / PowerPoint / sounds / positive smells / touch / DVDs When preparing a PowerPoint slide Keep it simple Do not put too much information You should not be looking at slides Limit number of fonts to 3 (same as heading) Clear and simple fonts No transition slides Display key points then you fill in the blank October 17th Long Informative Speech 6 – 10 minutes At least 3 sources (cite orally in speech) Turn in formal outline on day of speech with attached bibliography (works cited) Must have: Visual aids (PP, music, etc.) 200 point speech 50 point outline Must be researched Speak from notes APA or MLA format 10/24/13 Test (Chapters 1 – 10, 14) Definitions Short answer Multiple choice Chapter 11 – Outlines *Speaking Outline Be more organized Using key words in notes to jog memory Put transitions in notes Underlining to stress some words *Preparation Outline Organize outline as you find it *Formal Outline (what Ventre wants me to turn into her): (pg. 208) Title (put name somewhere) General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: what you want the audience to get, know what to do when the presentation is over Central Idea: Main topic including points in speech Introduction I. Full sentences II. Full sentences (Or write out the introduction in paragraph form) Body I. Full sentences A. Phrases B. Phrases II. Full sentences A. Phrases B. Phrases 1. Single words 2. Single Words C. Phrases Conclusion Chapter 12 – Using Language Well *Denotative or Connotative Meaning Denotative: precise, literal, objective Connotative: variable, figurative, subjective (9/11) *Using Language Accurately Always go for simple language Use words familiar to you and your audience Use concrete / specific words Eliminate clutter Don’t use overused words (clichés) *Rhythm Parallel structure November 12th Persuasive Speech (December 3 ) (6 – 10 min) Persuasion: The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s beliefs or actions *Principles of Persuasion 1. Persuasion is more likely if goals are limited rather than global 2. Persuasion is more important permanent if achieved incrementally 3. Persuasion is more likely if the audience lacks information on the topic 4. Persuasion is related to how important the audience considers the topic 5. Persuasion is more likely if the audience is selfmotivated in the direction of the message 6. Persuasion is more likely if the speaker’s message is consistent with listeners’ values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors 7. Persuasion is more likely if arguments are placed appropriately 8. Persuasion is more likely if the source is credible 9. Persuasion is more likely if the speaker establishes common ground with the audience Target Audience – those who you think can be persuaded Questions of: 1. Fact – A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion 2. Value – A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action 3. Policy – A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken *Organizing Persuasive Speeches 1. Refutational Strategy: state a claim and show that it is not true 2. ProblemSolution Division: describe a problem and its solution 3. NeedPlan Division 4. Motivated Sequence a. Attention step b. Need step c. Satisfaction step the solution (which will satisfy the need and make the audience feel satisfied) d. Visualization step – vivid; the audience can actually see or imagine the effect of the persuasive claim e. Action step – the desired audience behavior or change in thought 5. Instructor’s 4 Step Sequence a. Attract and Hold Attention b. Motivate (emotional appeal) c. Instill Belief (factual and logical appeal) d. Move to Action (or change of thought)