(a) Explain the following trend in lattice energy: BeH2 3205 kJ/mol; MgH2, 2791 kJ/mol; CaH2, 2410 kJ/mol; SrH2, 2250 kJ/mol; BaH2, 2121 kJ/mol. (b) The lattice energy of ZnH2 is 2870 kJ/mol. Based on the data given in part (a), the radius of the Zn2+ ion is expected to be closest to that of which group 2A element?
Chapter 10, 11 SELF in SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Personality à pattern of behavior thoughts, emotion that are defining of who you are [& that are consistent] PROJECTIVE TESTS - Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) à ambiguous story lines - Rorschach Blots à ambiguous images to determine how you perceive the world-stimulus that trigger an “unconscious” self HUMANISTIC THEORIES à potential for (Ability/ propensity for change) personal growth (assessing) (self awareness) - Trait theories - Trait = genetic predisposition for patterns of behavior, etc. - Temperament = characteristic level of reactivity o Extraversion/ introversion – need for external stimulation/ sensitivity o Stability/ instability – ability to seek novelty & change 5 FACTOR TRAIT THEORY OF PERSONALITY Openness à being curios, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas Conscientiousness à being organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, dependable Extraversion à being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations Agreeableness à being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm Neuroticism à being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody v Myers-Briggs personality “types” (indicator) (MBTI) **types are not traits v Heritability à height 85% and personality 50% v Stability à over life-time v Cross-Cultural Consistency PERSON-SITUATION CONTROVERSY - Personality open to change in drastically different - “play the part” - 30% variability across situations - different factors are expressed differently in difference environments SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY Reciprocal determinism with traits & environment (gene/environment interaction) 1. Different people choosing different environment 2. Personality shapes our interpretation of events 3. Person helps creates situations in which we can react SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY v Attribution Theory à disposition(blame the person(kids are egocentrorm)) situation - Fundamental attribution error v Attitudes à feeling that predisposes us to respond - Central Route - analytical focus - Peripheral Route (social cues) – incidental influences § Cognitive Dissonance à contradictory routes of thinking - Goal is to balance out any conflicting information SOCIAL INFLUENCE • Automatic Mimicry à copy-foundation of (empathy) - Copying emotions = emotion contagion • Conformity à doing & thinking what others do/think • Obedience à “shocking” GROUP BEHAVIOR • Social Facilitation à performance strengthened in presence of others - social “pressure” competition (a little bit of anxiety (arousal) • Social Loafing à in presence of group we feel personally less accountable - responsibility is diffused equally across a group • De-Individuation à losing self-awareness & then self-identity • Group Polarization à enhancement in uniqueness in thought around other similar minded people ANTI-SOCIAL RELATIONS v Prejudice à predisposed attitudes/ emotions about another person/ group - Attitude, emotion - Founded in a social generalization COGNITIVE ROOTS OF PREJUDICE categorization – of “things” v Ingroup Bias à prefer things/ people we can relate to - Safe/comfort – we know about them v Outgroup Homogeneity à everyone that doesn’t look like me, looks the same SOCIAL ROOTS OF PREJUDICE v Social Inequality à not everyone is equal - Need for “Just World” **ratifying the inequality and get out of the ‘Us vs. Them’ mentality US vs. THEM --When we don’t resolve the root of the problem, it expands to a bigger problem. ALL OF US vs. ALL OF THEM Chapter 6,7a,8 MEMORY (active process) RECALL vs. RECOGNITION (types of retrieval) Recallà self generating of information & more active Recognition stimulus (C.S) & familiarity judgment Processes: 1. Encoding learning… thinking association 2. Storage retaining 3. Retrievalgetting information out Serial Position Curve Primacy effect Rehearsal Recovery effect Short Term Memory (STM) Proactive interferenold info. interferes w/ learning new things Retroactive interferennew learning w/ remembering old info. 3-STAGE MODAL/ MODEL 1. Sensory(buffer) memory è Capacity: unlimited è Duration: 50ms per. sec. 2. Short term memory (STM) è Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items… what is an item **chunking (group w/ meaning) helps increase the capacity of short-term memory. è Duration: 15-25 sec. Processing: AUTOMATIC & EFFORTFUL è Automatic (implicit association): shallow(relevels of processing è Effortful (effective, conscious w/ a lot of attmaking: deep connection w/ long term memory 3. Long Term Memory (LTM) è Capacity: unlimited è Duration: unlimited TRANSFER to LTM Spaced vs. Massed practice –- Attention & Memory consolidation Spaced –> NOT cramming and it’s more effective Massed –> cramming Attention –> less is transferred to STM Memory –> recognition **Testing effect Retrieval Practice WORKING MEMORY Sensory / \ Phonological Loop Visuospatial Skeptical \ / Central Executive | LTM Phonological Loop – language, auditory, *(repeat words, read, verbal tasks) Central Executive – mediating (mediator) Visuospatial Skeptical – visual info. LTM includes – Sensory, Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Skeptical, and the Central Executive STM includes – Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Skeptical, and the Central Executive MEMORY AT THE NEURAL LEVEL 3 processes • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval Synaptic changesà Wiring together = long term potentiation (w/ repeated stimulation, and the release of neurotransmitters increases) Retrievalà getting information out è Retrieval cues – recognition Context – depend, Memory – encoding specificity --environmentà provides implicit/ retrieval cues (automatic) State – depend/ mood congruency FORGETTING Encoding failure vs. Retrieval failure • Encoding failure – inattional “remembering” • Retrieval failure – retrieval is constructive “rebuilding” è Storage decay (decreases likelihood of post synaptic firing = forgetting **fades the pathways that were originally encoded è Interference/ construction errors • --Misinformation effect è Misleading past event information (MPI) è Source Amnesia COGNITION – THINKING & PROBLEM – SOLVING Thinking vs. Learning -Making association Memory – recalling association Cognition – processing – interpreting association – making sense – doing something – integrate/ transform CONCEPTS/ VISUAL IMAGERY • Prototypeà averaged form of (mental imagery) that includes necessary features of the concepts (Concepts) general ideal/ collection of facts about an idea semantically PROBLEM-SOLVING • Trial & Error with no information or completely novel situation – inefficient (randomly trying different combinations in no particular order when we tried to spell PSYCHOLOGY when it was CLOOYSPHYG) • Algorithms à meaningful, organized, step by step procedure (carefully checking every single combination beginning with the letter “C” before moving on to a different letter when we tried to spell PSYCHOLOGY when it was CLOOYSPHYG) • Heuristics rule-based on experience (due to likelihood of occurring) (considering logical reasoning’s to solve problems) OBSTACLES TO PROBLEM-SOLVING (prove the disapproving theory) • Mental Set “way of thinking” – default mode of thinking • Functional Fixedness default function from a familiar item • Confirmation Bias looking for information that confirms our beliefs or confirm a rule • Availability Heuristilikelihood of something that is very salient; strongest neural pathway • Over Confidence • Belief Perseveranceholding on to previously told beliefs REASONING -> transformation of information to reach conclusions Inductive Specific---------------------------- ß -------------------General- Deductive THINKING CREATIVITY à producing ideas Convergent à taking facts & arriving at a solution; problem solving (facts) (answers) Divergent à generating ideas based on one particular fact/ assumption (idea) (stimulus) LANGUAGE & THINKING (language influences thinking & thinking affects language) **Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis ^^ LANGUAGE & THE BRAIN • Wernicke’s Area à hearing words (auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area); language comprehension • Broca’s Area à speaking words (Broca’s area and the motor cortex); language production Communication – conveying any kind of meaning Language – infinite “productivity” generativity **UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Receptiveà understanding (what kids do at first) Productiveà producing/ speaking (1) babble: phonemes (sound in language; ^^example. Ma ma) (2) one word: 9 months (3) 2 words: 18-24 months (4) sentences (generating, Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (semantic burst)): 28 months Critical/ sensitive periodnervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in other to grow or develop COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • When does development begin Critical period & synaptogenesis (starts in first trimester) < Qualitative vs. Quantitative differences/ changes > Qualitative – different type of ability – new abilities emerge over time in development; “thinking differently” Quantitative – more or less of an ability; “knowing more” v Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Piaget believed that one's childhood plays a vital and active role in a person's development. Assimilation – become a part of; (applying new to old) Ø Interpreting according to past experience Accommodation – adapting your old way of thinking Ø Adjusting old information to fit new experiences STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. Sensorimotor (stage 0 – 2 years old) à knowledge is based on sensory experience; no interpretation/ “perception”; recognition but recall “out of sight, out of mind” à object permanence – lack it (invisible displacement) 2. Preoperational (stage 2 – 6 + 7 yeaàs lacking logic (abstract thinking)à conservation -**water amount, clay and the M&M examples from clasà egocentrism -only their point of view/ peràptheory of mind -mental perspectives, attribute a different state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete operational (stage 7 – 12 years old) à mental operations -prototypes(transform information) -abstraction of the physical world 4. Formal operational (stage 12+ years) à abstract reasoning(deductive) à mental operations on abstract rules à deductive reasoning SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • Imprint à bond based on needs being met • Attachment à emotional bond another person Task à storage situation STYLES OF ATTACHMENT à • Secure crying is absence, ceasing cry upon return • Insecure/ Anxion’sà crying in absence, continues to cry – inconstancy/ abandonment; Abuse – needs not being met, being avoided • Avoidant à no crying – ever! ^^^are indicative of how much trust you have Development of … trust, etc.: intimacy, friendships DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT • Mirror self-recognition – 18 months’ infants pass • Self in relation to others – changing relation to others v Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development TRUST à INITIATIVE à COMPETENCE à INTIMACY à INTEGRITY v Kohlberg’s Level of Moral Development Preconventional à reward(good) & punishment(bad) (Follows rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest. Obedience for its own sake) Conventional à maintaining social fairness/ justice obey laws (Lives up to expectations of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of social system. Upholds laws) Post-conventional à putting aside the rules/ justified behavior (Follows self-chosen principles of justice and right. Aware that people hold different values and seeks creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. Balances concern for individual with concern for common good) DEVELOPMENT & AGING (60+ years old) - Memory - Neurocognitive disorders • Myelin sheath production goes DOWN • Acetylcholine (NT) goes DOWN (excitatory) - Amygdala response • Responsiveness only to negative events • Old people are happier Chp. 6 Encoding (after sensing) – putting information from sense à short term Storage – keeping information Retrieval – using information; taking out of storage and into short term memory Sensory memory – sensation encoding-Short-term memory – information at hand; attending to retrieval-storage-Long-term memory – unlimited past experiences/ memories Types of retrieval Recall – remembering based on self-generated (short answer) Recognition – remembering based on seeing (multiple choice) recognition-Retrieval cues (priming) – anchor points – how memory is connected (context dependence state/mood) Serial position effect Primacy effect – remember the 1 things more easily (chp.6-11, chp.6) Recency effect – remember the last thing more easily (chp.11) Proactive interference (primacy) – old interferes with new Retroactive interference (recency) – new interferes with old Spaced practice (mere effective) – not cramming; spaced studying Massed practice – cramming Forgetting Construction error – not placing/ organizing a memory correctly Misinformation effect – misleading past event information (car crash) Long-term potential – strengthened synapses (going over something over and over again Source amnesia – incorrectly remembering location Chp. 7 Learning – making association Cognitive processing – interpretation of an association (making sense) Cognition – thinking w/ association and problem solving Prototype (model) – ideal; image (my dog w/ brown spots Trial and error – random combinations to find solution (random ingredients for cookies) Algorithms – step by step (using a recipe) Heuristics – rule based; not always going to work (short cut/ experience) Mental set – set way of thinking; default mode Functional fixedness – set way on how to use an item Confirmation bias – look for information that confirms your thoughts (when your crush gives you a pencil) Availability heuristics – fresh in your mind due to a higher likelihood (die by airplane or shark attack) Over confidence – thinking you’re better than the average person (saying you’re a better driver) Belief perseverance – holding onto beliefs (someone who thinks ghosts exist) Inductive reasoning (faulty) – specific to general (my cat has fur then all cats have fur) Divergent thinking – makes ideas (assumption) off of one fact (stimulusàideas) Deductive reasoning – general to specific (all cats have fur so my cat has fur) Convergent thinking – taking facts and coming to a conclusion (answeràfacts) Wernicke’s area (auditory cortex) – language processing (receptive language) (hear words) Broca’s area (motor cortex) – producing language (speaking words) Receptive language – understanding Productive language – producing/ speaking Phoneme – language in sounds Critical/ sensitive period – neurons haven’t “solidified” needs various input Synaptogenesis – creation of synapses Habituation – getting used to stimuli (after awhile you don’t hear a clock ticking) Chp. 8 Qualitative thinking – different type of ability (new abilities emerge over time in development; “thinking differently”) Quantitative thinking – more or less of an ability; “knowing more” Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Piaget believed that one's childhood plays a vital and active role in a person's development. Assimilation – an individual’s incorporation of new information into existing knowledge (interpreting according to past experience) Accommodation – an individual’s adjustment of his or her schemas to new information (adjusting old information to fit new experiences) Sensorimotor – Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development, lasting from birth to about 2 years of age, during which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motor (physical) actions Object Permanence – Piaget’s term for the crucial accomplishment of understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched Preoperational – Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, lasting from about 2 to 7 years of age, during which thought is more symbolic than sensorimotor thought (lacking logic (abstract thinking)) à Conservation water amount, clay and the M&M examples from class à Egocentrism only their point of view/ perspective à Theory of mind mental perspectives, attribute a different state of knowledge to other individuals Concrete operational – Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development, lasting from about 7 to 11 years of age, during which the individual uses operations and replaces intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations. Formal operational – Piaget’s fourth stage of cognitive development, which begins at 11 to 15 years of age and continues through the adult years; it features thinking about things that are not concrete, making predictions, and using logic to come up with hypothesis about the future. àAbstract reasoning – (deductive) Imprint – bond based on needs being met Attachment – emotional bond another person Secure attachment – crying is absence, ceasing cry upon return Insecure attachment – crying in absence, continues to cry – inconstancy/ abandonment; Abuse – needs not being met, being avoided Avoidant attachment – no crying – ever! (are indicative of how much trust you have) (Development of trust, etc.: intimacy, friendships) Mirror self recognition - 18 months’ infants pass Erikson’s psychosocial development – identifies stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage, the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. (trustàinitiativeàcompetenceàintimacyàintegrity) Kohlberg’s moral development – the Theory of Moral Development is a subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget's theory of moral reasoning. Developed by psychologist Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors. Preconventional – reward(good) & punishment(bad) (Follows rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest. Obedience for its own sake) Conventional – maintaining social fairness/ justice obey laws (Lives up to expectations of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of social system. Upholds laws) Post conventional - putting aside the rules/ justified behavior (Follows self-chosen principles of justice and right. Aware that people hold different values and seeks creative solutions to ethical dilemmas . Balances concern for individual with concern for common good) Chp. 10 Rorschach Bolts (Rorschach inkblot test) – a famous projective test that uses an individual’s perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – a projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual’s personality Humanistic theories (Humanistic perspectives) – theoretical views stressing a person’s capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities Trait – genetic predisposition for patterns of behavior, etc. Temperament – characteristic level of reactivity 5 factor trait theory – openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeable, and neuroticism Heritability for personality – 50% of our personality we inherit genetically from our biological parents Myers-Briggs (MBTI) – is an introspective self-report questionnaire designed to indicate psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions Cross-Cultural (consistency) – is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes Person-situation - in personality psychology refers to the controversy concerning whether the person or the situation is more influential in determining a person's behavior Social-cognitive theory (social cognitive perspectives) - reciprocal determinism with traits & environment (gene/environment interaction) Chp. 11 Attribution theory – disposition (blame the person (kids are egocentrism)) or situation Central route – analytical focus Peripheral route – incidental influences Cognitive dissonance – contradictory routes of thinking Automatic mimicry – copy-foundation of (empathy) Conformity – a change in a person’s behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard Obedience – behavior that compiles with the explicit demands of the individual in authority Social facilitation – improvement in an individual’s performance because of the presence of others Social loafing – each person’s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort Deindividuation – the reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group Group polarization (effect) – the solidification and further strengthening of an individual’s position as a consequence of a group discussion or interaction Prejudice – an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual’s membership in a group Ingroup bias – prefer things/ people we can relate to (safe/comfort – we know about them) Outgroup homogeneity – everyone that doesn’t look like me, looks the same Social inequality – not everyone is equal