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Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 90AE Chapter 8

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 90AE

Problem 90AE

Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each of the following molecules or ions:

(a) the central oxygen atom in O3, (b) phosphorus in PF6-, (c) nitrogen in NO2, (d) iodine in ICl3, (e) chlorine in HClO4 (hydrogen is bonded to O).

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Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients1 Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients The 20­year longitudinal study Robin Cordero 676024301 University of Illinois at Chicago Dr. Nancy Dassoff PSCH 270 Spring, 2016 Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 2 “Angela, 19, was brought to the emergency room by her boyfriend, Jaime, because she had cut her wrists. When she was questioned, her attention wandered. She seemed transfixed by creatures in the air, or by something she might be hearing.It seemed as if she had an invisible earphone” (Nevid, 404). The case presented from the book, Abnormal psychology in a changing world, written by Nevid, Rathus, and Greene showcase the symptoms involved in the development of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia itself is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects every asset of a person’s life. People who develop schizophrenia usually develop it during their late adolescents or early adulthood, as seen in Angela’s case (Nevid, 405). More so, people who develop this disorder typically disengages from society and develop distorted perceptions of reality. Most importantly, they fail to function in their daily roles, as students, spouses, and workers. Schizophrenia can be associated with a wide range of abnormal behaviors that involves in the way we think, the way we perceive things, and effects our emotional state of mind. Symptoms or features of schizophrenia fall into three important categories: Positive, Negative and cognitive symptoms (discussion is ongoing for the third symptom). In positive symptoms, people usually lose touch with reality as represented by hallucinations (involves false sensory perceptions, for example seeing, hearing, smelling or tasting something that other people do not normally sense and exist only in out minds), delusional thinking (which involve false beliefs and misinterpretations of one’s own perceptions and experience) and agitated body movements. In contrast, negative symptoms affect a person daily function, such that it disrupts normal emotional (loss of expressive emotion, such that you maintained a very blank expression, have poor eye contact and little or no body language and movement) and behavioral (loss of pleasure Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 3 normally found in pleasant activities and socially withdrawal (isolated) from the outside world) state. In cognitive symptoms, people have difficulties in concentrating and in memory. People tend to have disorganize thoughts and have difficulty understanding things. More so, people with schizophrenia tend to develop poor quality of speech that involves reducing quality and verbal fluency (the way one chooses words). For a person to be diagnosed with schizophrenia psychiatrist mostly rely on clinical symptoms, such as the one presented. Currently, there is no physical or lab work tested to pinned point or diagnosed schizophrenia. However, research is evaluating the possibility of a physical diagnostic test. Furthermore, there is no single symptom that is definitive in diagnosing schizophrenia instead it is a combination of patterns and symptoms, in concurrence with impaired social functioning. According to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), a person must require that the psychotic behavior (delusional or hallucinations thoughts) be persistent for a period of 6 months. During the 6­months period, the (two or more) symptoms must be active and prominent for at least a month (if not treated). Because diagnosing is rather very difficult and since schizophrenia shares common symptoms with other disorder a misdiagnosed is commonly made. To avoid a misdiagnose a person must be an expert in the field in schizophrenia. A crucial and thorough review of the diagnosed must be made to begin treatment. Although, today there is no known cause for schizophrenia researcher believe that a combination of genetics and environment may play a role in the development of the disorder. According to Mayo clinic, problems in the brain chemicals involving neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamate may contribute to schizophrenia. Also, differences in brain size and central nervous system have been observing in patients with schizophrenia. Despite the fact that Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 4 there is evidence of these types of changes in the brain in patients with schizophrenia, researchers are not certain about how to interpret the changes as the whole. People who are at risk or have a high vulnerability of developing schizophrenia include family members who have had schizophrenia in their family history. Exposure to toxins while in the womb may also play a role. People who have an increased in immune response or autoimmune disease may be at risk. Taking mind­altering drugs, such as psychoactive or psychotropic drugs during late adolescent and early adulthood may also be put at risk. People who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia have different plan treatments. Treatment generally includes pharmacological, psychological, and rehabilitative approaches (Nevid, 411). Most people with schizophrenia are treated in a mental health setting. They may also receive some form of antipsychotic drugs to help alleviate episodes of delusion and hallucinations. Taking a closer look at the biological approach in treating schizophrenia includes the usage of antipsychotic drugs. Antipsychotic are use to control behavioral patterns of delusion and hallucination as well as reducing the need to be hospitalized for a long period of time. For many patients entering a hospital is like going through a revolving door: they are constantly being admitted and discharge. This reassurance of revolving door is seen as many people are discharged and left on their own once their symptoms have subsided and receive little or no follow­up care, which often leads to the inevitable brief stays in the hospital. Antipsychotic drugs help block dopamine receptors in the brain, who have taught to be attributed to schizophrenia since the drugs help reduce dopamine activity and alleviate some of the symptoms of delusion and hallucinations involve in schizophrenia patients. Some of the side effects involve in the long­ term usage of antipsychotic medication include sudden cardiac death, weight gain, increase Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 5 metabolic disorders and inadequate supplies of white blood cells (Nevid, 429). For this reason, many doctors face a difficult choice of whether or not the benefits of antipsychotic drugs out weight the risks. Antipsychotic medication alone does not meet the needs of people with schizophrenia. Although psychiatric drugs alleviate more severe symptoms they have limited impact on the overall social functioning and quality of life. As a result, drug therapy needs to be in conjunction with other treatments, such as psychological therapy (grounded in the diathesis­stress model, helps patients cope with stress and build social skills) , learned based therapy (helps modify schizophrenic behavior by developing behaviors that would help them adjust to the community), cognitive­behavioral therapy (helps reduce hallucination and delusional thinking), psychosocial rehabilitation( strengthens basic cognitive skills in memory and attention), and family intervention programs (focus on the aspect of everyday living and educating family members about schizophrenia). In all, no one single treatment approach can meet the needs of people with schizophrenia. To help individuals reach their full social adjustment a combination of interventions should be coordinated and integrated into a comprehensive model of treatment (Nevid, 430). Overall, schizophrenia affects about 1% of the U.S population and about 0.3% to 0.7% of the global population (Nevid, 407). Men tend to have a greater risk of developing schizophrenia than women. Men also have the tendency to develop schizophrenia earlier in age. Women also showcase a higher level of functioning before the onset of the disorder and exhibit less severe symptoms than men in the overall course of the illness. Schizophrenia can occur universally Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 6 across any culture although the manifestation of the symptom and the course of the illness may differ from culture to culture. To end on a positive note 40% or more of schizophrenia patients have long periods of remission (temporary recovery) lasting a year or longer and in some studies remain free of disturbing symptoms for several years even if they are unmediated. In the following case, we will examine the effects of long­term usage of antipsychotic drugs and un­medicated treatment and determined whether in the long run should medication be treated for psychosis in schizophrenia patients. Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients Since the discovery of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia on patients not much progress has been made to determine the long­term effects of antipsychotic drugs in treating psychosis in schizophrenia patients. For a long period of time, antipsychotic drugs were seen as the answer to schizophrenia prayers. However, it was not until recent research made by Harrow, Jobe, and Faul, from the department of psychiatry at the University of Illinois college of medicine that studies the usage of drug therapy in reducing psychosis in schizophrenia that we later see the opposite effects is observed. This paper will examine a 20­year longitudinal study on the severity of psychotic activity in samples with schizophrenia patients treated versus not treated with antipsychotic medication. Article Review Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 7 The major issues that have been greatly debated around are the long­term usage of antipsychotic drugs to treat schizophrenia. On the one hand, the major issue is the lack of evidence of long­term (X>3 years) treatment with antipsychotic medication and whether they reduce or eliminate psychosis. On the other hand, according to the world psychiatry association, antipsychotic treatment has played a significant impact on the long­term course of schizophrenia illness and have shown to facilitate recovery. However, in the study made by Leucht and his colleagues (2012) on the effects of maintaining antipsychotic treatment for people with schizophrenia compared to withdrawing these agents, showed that there are no known effects compared to placebo after three years. The current research was done by Harrow, Jobe and Naul question the long­term effects of antipsychotics. In their 20­year longitudinal research study, they assess the effects of psychosis on treated and untreated patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, they focus on how often did schizophrenia patients experience psychosis (1), the severity of the psychosis for those treated with antipsychotics (2), was the psychosis less severe than does not in treatment (3), and how effective is antipsychotic treatment on mood disorder patient who experience psychotic behavior (4). Harrow and his colleagues were able to effectively measure each variable by carefully examining and preventing any bias outcome. A sample of 139 young (mean age 23) schizophrenia and mood disorder patients were assessed at index hospitalization. These patients were then reassessed at five or six consecutive follow­ups over a period of 20 years. Trained interviewers were not informed of the patients diagnosed or result of the previous follow­up. Out of the 139 patients, seventy include patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and sixty­ nine mood disorder patients (Harrow, etl). All schizophrenia patients met the 6­month duration Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 8 period of illness. More so, satisfactory of inter­rater reliability for the diagnoses were obtain for schizophrenia patients. Among the seventy schizophrenia patients, fifty­nine were assessed at the 20­year follow­up period. The other eleven were assessed at the first five follow­ups. The sixty­ nine non­schizophrenia included thirty­eight psychotic bipolar patients and thirty­one psychotic unipolar depressives. At index hospital, fifty­one percent of the sample were male patients. At the 20­year assessment, sixty­two percent of schizophrenia patients prescribed antipsychotics with or without other medications and nice percent were prescribed another medication. For the mood disorder patients, twenty­eight percent were prescribed antipsychotic and thirty­seven percent were prescribed another medication. In addition, seventy percent schizophrenia patients were divided into three groups. The first group (25) were prescribed antipsychotics medication at every follow­up assessment. The second group (24) had some but not all prescribe antipsychotic medication at each follow­up. The third group was not prescribed at all antipsychotic medication at any of the follow­up assessment. The remaining 6 schizophrenia patients had less than four follow­up assessments. For groups 1 and 3, psychosis was analyzed on the basis of manifestation symptoms (were their less or more psychotic symptoms). To analyze psychosis each patient was rated at each of the follow­up assessment on a standard structured interview. The range of different symptoms was examined, this included sixteen different types of delusions and four different type of hallucinations. Furthermore, disorganize/formal thought disorder was also assessed at each of the following assessment. The severity of psychotic symptoms was measured on the basis of the degree of disruption in the patient's social and instrumental functioning (Harrow, etl). This also included the general evaluation of the severity of the psychosis. Because diagnosing can influence the vulnerability of psychosis two important prognostic scales were Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 9 administered prior to each follow­up. The first assess the influence of prognostic factors and the second assess the influence on the psychosis of premorbid developmental achievement. After data was collected and analyze result show that high percentage of schizophrenia patients that were prescribed antipsychotic medication experience either mild or more severe psychotic activity than non­prescribe antipsychotics. More so, schizophrenia who were not prescribed antipsychotics experience less significant disorganization/formal thought than prescribe antipsychotics. In the overall sample, twelve schizophrenia patients were psychosis free in all the follow­up assessment. Of those twelve, seven were not prescribe medication and the remaining five were from the group that prescribed antipsychotics at some but not all of the follow­up assessment. From group one who were prescribe antipsychotics continuously showed moderate to severe psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, for each of the six follow­up assessment the majority of the schizophrenia patients who experience psychotic activity had both delusional and hallucinations thoughts. Results related to prognostic factors indicate that multiple factors influence psychosis and outcome, such as biological, developmental, age of patient and stressful events. Results from sixty­nine patients with mood disorder showed the similar result of the schizophrenia patients who were prescribed antipsychotic and showed more psychotic symptoms. Concerning hospitalization, schizophrenia patients who were prescribed antipsychotics were frequently more hospitalized than those who were not prescribed antipsychotics. Analysis of the results showed that non­psychiatry medication indicated that their short­term effectiveness persists for a long period afterward, whereas other medications subside and become ineffective. More so, the high percentage of psychotic activity in patients who were prescribed Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 10 medication suggest that for some schizophrenia patients long usage of mediation impedes recovery. In addition, a finding of schizophrenia vulnerability suggests that antipsychotics drugs may increase the chances of psychosis. This is due to the fact that less vulnerable, mood disorder patients still showed some limited vulnerability to psychosis over time and show a greater vulnerability to continuous antipsychotics than non­psychotic medications. Conclusion The study made by Harrow and his colleagues examine the frequency and severity of psychotic activity in samples with schizophrenia patients who were treated versus those who were not treated with antipsychotic medication. Bases on the result and analysis, it was suggested that the relatively high percentage of continuous prescribe schizophrenia patient who showed moderate levels of psychosis at many follow­ups may have been influenced by a combination of factors. Some of the factors included the high vulnerability to the psychosis of many schizophrenia patients. Other factors suggest that prolong treatment, with partial dopamine blocker, could cause build up of supersensitive dopamine receptors for some schizophrenia patients. This combination of the factor as Harrow and his colleagues pointed out may act together and dramatically increase the possibility of psychotic symptoms. Overall, the article had a good stand and a good insight on the long­term usage of antipsychotic medication. It does a good job in preventing any influence to the study. This is observed when the interviewers were not aware that the data would be used for issues involving antipsychotic efficacy. This is important because it makes the data more reliable and more accurate without influencing any outcome. More so, the study contains a satisfactory inter­rater reliability for structured research interviews. This is important because the judges who are Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 11 conducting the interviews are in agreement with their assessment, which is needed to ensure the validity of the study. The only weakness I would say is that the study contained a relatively a small sample size (139). The problem with a small sample size is that the findings can only be generalized to a certain area, however no to the whole population. In all, schizophrenia is a disorder that can affect anyone at any moment, with no pinpoint cause. For this reason, learning about it is very important. Reference List Harrow, M., Jobe, T.H., & Faull, R.N. (2014). Does treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotic medications eliminate or reduce psychosis A 20­year multi­follow­up study. Psychological Medicine, 44, 3007­3016. N., & G. (n.d.). Schizophrenia. In R. (Ed.), Abnormal psychology in a changing world (Vol. 9, pp. 402­437). Rajiv Tandon, R.H. Belmaker, Wagner F. Gattaz, Juan J. Lopez­Ibor Jr., Ahmed Okasha, Bruce Singh, Dan J. Stein, Jean­Pierre Olie, W. Wolfang Fleischhacker, Hans­Juergen Moeller, World Psychiatric Association Pharmacopsychiatry Section statement on comparative effectiveness of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, Volume 100, Issues 1–3, March 2008, Pages 20­38, ISSN 0920­9964, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2007.11.033. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920996407005415) S, L., M, T., K, K., S, H., W, K., & JM, D. (n.d.). Maintenance treatment with antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia (Review). Retrieved from http://indigo.uic.edu/bitstream/handle/10027/10429/CD008016.pdfsequence=1 Does the usage of antipsychotic drug treatment alleviate psychosis in schizophrenia patients 12

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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each