Molecular Shapes; the VSEPR Model (Sections)
The three species NH2-, NH3, and NH4+ have H—N—H bond angles of 105°, 107°, and 109°, respectively. Explain this variation in bond angles.
Ecology Notes Exam 2 3/21/16 - 3/23/16 THE BOLDED WORDS (A-H) INDICATE THE TITLE OFTHE SLIDE IN WHICH YOU WILLFIND THESE NOTES. THE UNDERLINED WORDSARE THE “FILL-IN- THE-BLANK” WORDS THAT WERE GIVEN IN CLASS. THE OTHER WORDSARE GUIDE WORDS TO HELPYOU BE BETTERABLE TO FIND YOUR PLACE ON EACH SLIDEAND SO YOU KNOW WHERE TO PUTYOUR “FILL-IN-THE-BLANK” WORDS. TOAVOID PLAGIARISM, THEREARE NO COMPLETE SENTENCES. PLEASE EMAILME WITHANY QUESTIONS. ▯ I. CONCEPTS OF PREDATION (This is the name of the packet) A. Types of Predation 1. Herbivory, etc. B. Diet Breadth 1. Narrow Diet : Specialist a) Ex:Anteaters eat ONLY termites and ants 2. Broad Diet : Generalist a) Animals that eat EVERYTHING C. Predators 1. Behavior of Predators a) Numerical Response (1) Change in size… b) Functional Response (1) Change in rate of exploitation… (2) Tendency to eat more prey as the prey densities start to increase (3) Type I, Type II, Type III D. Predation 1. Type I Functional Response a) Predator Searches randomly… b) Has Unlimited … c) Spends a Constant amount of time… d) No DD … regulation of prey… e) Sessile … 2. Type II Functional Response a) Predator satiation… b) Maximum consumption… low … c) At higher… decreases … d) Typical of selective, … 3. Type III Functional Response a) Predators less efficient …. b) Predators increase search … c) Prey Switching at low …. d) Refugia hypothesis … e) Typical of opportunistic … 4. Evolutionary arm race… Ecology Notes Exam 2 3/21/16 - 3/23/16 a) Involves genetic … b) natural selection (1) a function to produce smarter, more evasive prey and more skilled predators E. PredatorAdaptations 1. Behavioral, Physiological, Morphological a) Cryptic Cloning b) Aggressive Mimcry (1) evolved to deceive … (2) e.g., robber fly… c) Echolocation (1) bats d) Finely tuned hearing (1) owls —> asymmetrical … e) cannibalism (1) Generally Stressed … F. Predator Hunting Strategies 1. Ambush a) “Lie and …” b) e.g., frogs, lizards, … 2. Stalking a) actively following … 3. Searching a) Great deal of E … 4. Cooperative Hunting a) e.g., wolves, lions, … 5. Filter Feeding a) ex. baleen whales 6. Predators must be … G. Optimal Foraging Theory 1. Tendency of animals … efficiently, selecting food sizes … food intake for energy expended 2. 2 Primary Components: a) Profitability (1) Relates net energy … (2) Net Energy Intake / Foraging Time (3) Time constraint is imposed on individuals (4) NEI = Growth E — digestion — handling (5) FT = Travel time + search time + handling time (6) Selective Forager —> HIGH energy intake … high ST + HT (7) Generalist Forager —> HIGH energy intake … low ST + HT 3. 2 Primary Components (Continued) a) Foraging Efficiency (FE) (1) Relates energy obtained … Ecology Notes Exam 2 3/21/16 - 3/23/16 (2) FE = E obtained / E expended (3) No time constraint is imposed on the individuals (4) Relative Importance … (a) FE less important with… (b) FE more important with … (5) Not good at assessing… (6) WHY (a) Do not take into account the handling time (ex. digestion) (7) When is FE better than profitability i) Answer: When there is low food quality ii) Sometimes its better to eat nothing, than to eat low quality food iii) animals can starve when filled with low quality food (1) lots of energy expended, and not enough intake 4. Search Image: a perceptual change … a) Becomes progressively easier to find other prey species. b) Search image may decrease but is still retained … 5. Optimal Diet a) 4 “Decisions” (1) Consumer should … Profitable (2) Feed selectively…abundant (3) consume less profitable foods… food is scarce (4) Ignore unprofitable food … H. Anti-predatory Defense Strategies a) Cryptic Coloration (1) color patterns, shapes … (2) movements b) Counter-Shading (1) lower part of body is light, … c) Object Resemblance (1) walking sticks … d) Flashing Coloration (1) Deer: group cohesion … (a) *SIDE NOTE* white-tailed deer travel together then run in all opposite directions when in the presence of danger. The flashing of all their white tails going in opposite directions confuses the predator and makes it harder for them to focus and catch their prey e) Mechanical / Behavioral Defenses f) Aposematic coloration (1) conspicuous color markings… (2) “it pays to …” g) Mimicry (1) Batesian: palatable or harmless species mimics (a) e.g., Coral snake …. Ecology Notes Exam 2 3/21/16 - 3/23/16 (b) “red to yellow…” (2) Mullerian: Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other (a) cuckoo bee & … (b) monarch & viceroy … h) Migration (1) Migrate beyond… i) Herding & Spacing (1) Decreased risk of predation … (2) Group size should increase with increasing… (3) Trade-offs — increasing intraspecific competition … j) Predator satiation-timing reproduction / birth synchrony (1) predator swamping… (2) 13 and 17 year… k) chemical defense (1) Venom—… (2) fish alarm… (3) organisms frequently… (a) Skunks, mustelids … (b) bombadier … l) protective armor (1) mussels, turtles,… m) weaponry (1) porcupines, hedgehog,… n) behavioral defenses (1) Alarm calls, …