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Shapes and Polarity of Polyatomic Molecules (Section)(a)

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 39E Chapter 9

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 39E

Problem 39E

Shapes and Polarity of Polyatomic Molecules (Section)

(a) Does SCl2 have a dipole moment? If so, in which direction does the net dipole point? (b) Does BeCl2 have a dipole moment? If so, in which direction does the net dipole point?

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Psychology Exam 4 Study Guide Chapter 11: Emotions and Motivation  Definitions o Emotions are conscious reactions caused by an event o Moods are feelings/ states that are not linked to a specific event o Affects are automatic responses  Positive vs. negative affects  Discrete Emotions Theory o Humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are rooted in our biology  Primary emotions  Anger  Fear  Sadness  Happiness  Disgust  Surprise  Primary  Primary emotions combine to form secondary emotions  Ex: Fear + Surprise = Alarm  These emotions are universal  Darwin: emotions and expressions are biologically innate and instinctive  Ekman and colleagues: Showed people pictures of other people displaying emotions and found high agreement o Criticized for only testing industrialized countries  Did the same experiment in New Guinea  Still could not prove the six emptions were produced spontaneously  Third study: Had American and Japanese people watch an emotional film and monitored their facial expressions  Displaying Emotion rules o How and when to display emotion o Cultural differences because cultural norms create the rules  Americans are more expressive than East Asian cultures especially when they think they are being watched o Gender differences  Men and women experience the same amount of emotions, but differ in their expression  Exception: Mean fall in love faster and fall out of love slower o Sometimes people show emotions they don’t feel  Pan Am Smile: fake smile  Duchenne Smile: real smile  Emotions and behavior o We used to think emotions are bi-dimensional  Arousal (high vs. low)  Physiological response to an emotion  Valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant)   This has been phased out because emotions with the same arousal and valence may have different behaviors o Domain Specificity  Emotion often motivates behavior  Disgust: avoid disease  Sadness: seek social support o Similar valence/arousal, but different behaviors  Theories of Emotion o James Lang Theory  Emotions are caused by physiological changes  Stimulus  physiological change  arousal  Missing the idea that specific physiological changes do not always lead to the same emotion o Cannon Bard Theory  Physiological arousal and emotions occur simultaneously  Stimulus  Physiological arousal AND emotion o Two-Factor (Schacter- Singer) theory  Two components to emotions  Physiological experience  Cognitive interpretation  Ex: When your heart is beating after walking up a flight of stairs to get to an interview  You might think your heart is beating fast because you are anxious, but it could be because you are out of shape  Motivation o Psychological needs or desires that energize or direct behavior o Three perspectives  Drive Reduction Theory  A physiological need creates an aroused state that motivates organisms to seek satisfaction  Aim: Homeostasis  Incentive Theories  Motivated behavior extends beyond satisfying physiological drive because we are also motivated by psychological drives (goals)  Curiosity: we explore the world without a need-based drive  Intrinsic Motivation: People are motivated by internal goals (enjoyment)  Extrinsic Motivation: People are motivated by external goals (When you don’t necessarily want to do something, but do for the hopeful outcome  studying)  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model  Emphasizes the prioritizing of diverse physiological and psychological needs o Basic needs before higher-level needs Chapter 13: Social Psychology  The scientific study of the causes and consequences of people’s affects, behaviors and cognitions regarding themselves and other people o Attitudes are beliefs that include an emotional component  Affected by our actions because sometimes we look to our actions to inform our attitude o Cognitive dissonance: unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting attitudes or actions (when your actions don’t match your attitudes)  To eliminate this tension:  Modify your actions  Modify your attitudes  Conformity o A tendency to alter ones thinking or behavior in response to group pressure o Asch’s experiments  Participants were shown three lines and told to pick which one matched  Other participants were instructed to choose incorrectly to see how the actual test subject would conform o Reasons to conform  Negative social influence  The fear of social rejection or need for social approval  Informational social influence  Accepting the opinion of others to be true  Obedience o Behavior following the rules or instructions from those of higher authority  Debate of good or bad o Obedience influences  Authority of experimenter  Tone of voice  Word choice  Prestige  Location of experimenter  More obedience when they are in the same room  Location of victim  More obedience when the victim is not in the room  Disobedient peers  People who know other dissenters are more likely to disobey  Prosocial Behavior o Intentional (accidently helping does not count o Has to benefit others (not just yourself)  Bystander Intervention o Are people willing to engage in prosocial behavior in an emergency situation o Bystander Effect: People are less likely to step in and help as the number of bystanders increases o Darley and Latane  1. Notice situation  2. Interpret as an emergency  Pluralistic ignorance: Error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do (Not acting because you rely on other people’s reactions  Tested people in a room and sent smoke in to see if the participant would go get help while the others did nothing  3. Assume responsibility  Diffusion of responsibility: Reduction of feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others  4. Know what to do  5. Judge that the costs are outweighed by benefits  Definitions: o Prejudice: A generalized negative attitude towards members of a group o Stereotypes: A generalized belief about members of a group o Discrimination: Behaviors or cognitions directed toward people on the basis of their group membership  Origins o Motivational origins  Social Identity Theory  We want to feel good about ourselves and our identity (partly) comes from the groups we belong to  Strong in-group identification leads to strong out- group prejudice o FSU  When self-esteem is threatened, people dislike out- group members more o Cognitive Origins  Categorization  People exaggerate differences between members of categories  People underestimate differences within category differences  When you are in a group, you see differences within the group, but you don’t see differences in an out- group  Illusory Correlation  Perceiving a correlation where non exists or over- estimating it’s magnitude  Caused by a joint occurrence between a minority member and a distinct event  Prejudice Reductions o Contact Hypothesis  Simply exposing people to members of different groups reduces prejudice  Not supported with research o 1. Out-group members should have traits and abilities that challenge negative stereotypes o 2. Contact is supported by social norms o 3. Groups are of equal status o 4. Contact Occurs in personal interactions o 5. Groups engage in cooperative activities to achieve a common goal  Group Behavior o Social Facilitation Theory  When you are in the presence of others, you will have a higher physiological arousal  Better performance if the task is well learned  Worse performance if the task is unknown o Social loafing  People are less productive in groups  Why  They are not evaluated individually  They think their contribution is unimportant  Interpersonal interaction o To increase becoming attracted to someone  Proximity (being close more often)  Similarity  Reciprocity (mutual acceptance)  Physical Attractiveness  Symmetry  Averageness (Composite faces) o Sternberg’s triangle of love  Passion  Necessary for starting a relationship  Intimacy: feelings of closeness and sharing  Commitment  Necessary to maintain the relationship and increase over time  People always have different levels of the three components during different stages of a relationship o Why we stay in a relationship  Investment model  Satisfaction/ How happy are you with your partner  Available alternatives/ Are there others who would make a better partner  Investment/ How much have you put into this relationship Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders  Mental Illness o Psychopathology (mental illness): A disturbance in thoughts, emotions or behaviors that cause significant distress and/ or impairs functions o Failure analysis approach: tries to understand MI by examining breakdowns in functioning  Psychological disorders o Criteria for diagnosing  What is abnormal  Statistically abnormal from the bell curve  Every culture has different standards for normality  Not all disorders are uncommon  Does it lead to significant distress  Except: some forms of distress are expected due to events o Grief over a dead loved one o Not all disorders cause distress and not all distress is caused by a disorder  Does it interfere with one’s ability to get along in life  Degree of impairment matters as well  Remember: Everyone deviates, is distressed or experiences impairment at times and that is normal  It’s a matter of degree o To classify psychological disorders  Syndromes: patterns of psychological symptoms  DSM: manual on how to classify/diagnose disorders  Groups disorders by category  Specific criteria checklist to determine disorders and make diagnoses o People must have 5 of 9 on the list  Cautions psychologists to rule out physical causes first  Contains information about prevalence/ rarity  Criticisms o Not all diagnoses meet criteria for validity/ are well researched o Not all criteria and rules are well researched o High level of comorbidity  Multiple disorders occurring in one person  Says the distinct categories are more related than we think o Reliance on categorical rather than dimensional model o Vulnerable to political and social influences  People lobby for changes before a new version is finalized  Anxiety disorders o Exaggeration of threat that results in distressing, persistent anxiety and may lead to maladaptive impairment o Types of anxiety disorders  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)  Excessive worry about situations that may not worry others  Continually tense and uneasy even without provocation  General/broad  Panic Disorders  Panic attacks and the worry about future panic attacks o Changing behaviors to decrease the likelihood o having an attack o Psychological: intense fear o Physiological: rapid heart rate, chest pain, lightheadedness, feels like a heart attack  Sometimes also diagnosed with agoraphobia (fear of outside)  Phobia  More intense than a fear o A particular animal, object or situation  Can be maladaptive if they prevent you from doing everyday or unfrightening things  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  Exposed to a traumatic event and reacted with intense fear or horror  Re-experiences the trauma through distressing recollections, intense distress when exposed to reminders  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)  Obsessions: recurrent and persistent distress-causing thoughts  Compulsions: Repetitive behaviors driven by an obsession  Persistent and unwanted  Mood disorders o Characterized by a lasting disturbance in mood  Extreme depression and mania o Major Depressive Disorder  Most common mood disorder  Severely depressed mood  Major changes in sleep patterns, weight and a loss of interest in otherwise pleasurable activities  Lasts for months in order to be diagnoses o Bipolar Disorder  Alternating between depression and mania  Cycle through approximately biweekly  Depressive episode  Similar to Major Depressive Disorder  Cant get enough sleep  Little to no thoughts  Manic episode  Euphoria, grandiose self-esteem and over-activity  Do not need a lot of sleep  Often hospitalized during this phase  Personality Disorders o Maladaptive patterns of behavior that have the ability to severely impact the way a person communicates and behaves in social situations

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Chapter 9, Problem 39E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

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Shapes and Polarity of Polyatomic Molecules (Section)(a)