In general, what does “degrees of freedom” refer to? For the sample data described in Exercise, find the number of degrees of freedom, assuming that you want to construct a confidence interval estimate of ?. Exercise Six human skulls from around 4000 B.C. were measured, and the lengths have a mean of 94.2 mm and a standard deviation of 4.9 mm. If you want to construct a 93% confidence interval estimate of the mean length of all such skulls, what requirements must be satisfied?

Self Confidence Chapter 14 Monday, October 17, 2016 5:34 PM Defining Self-Confidence Self-confidence is the belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior Self-confidence can be defined in terms of state and trait self-confidence. • Self-fulfilling prophecy: expecting something to happen actually helps cause it to happen • Negative self-fulfilling prophecy: This is a psychological barrier whereby the expectation of failure leads to actual failure Aspects of Self-Confidence in Sport • Vealey and Knight(2002): confidence about one's ability to ○ Execute physical skills ○ Use psychological skills ○ Employ perceptual skills (example:making good decisions) ○ Be fit and highly trained Benefits of Self-confidence • Arouses positiveemotions • Facilitates concentration • Affects the setting and pursuit of challenging goals • Increases effort • Affects game strategies (play to win versus play to lose) • Affects psychologicalmomentum • Affects performance Levels of confidence • Optimal confidence involvesbeing so convinced that you will achieve your goals that you strive hard to do so • Lack of confidence or self-doubts create anxiety, break concentrationand causes indecisiveness • Overconfidence(false confidence) causes you to prepare less than you need to in order to perform. How expectationsinfluence performance • Expectationsplay a critical role in the behavior change process. Positiveexpectations of success produce positive effects in many fi