Analyze the Article Read the newspaper article and identify (a) the research question the study addresses, (b) the population, (c) the sample, (d) the descriptive statistics, and (e) the inferences of the study.
Study: Educational TV for Toddlers OK
CHICAGO (AP)—Arthur and Barney are OK for toddler
TV-watching, but not Rugrats and certainly not Power
Rangers, reports a new study of early TV-watching and
future attention problems.
The research involved children younger than 3, so TV is
mostly a no–no anyway, according to the experts. But
if TV is allowed, it should be of the educational variety,
the researchers said.
Every hour per day that kids under 3 watched violent
child-oriented entertainment their risk doubled for
attention problems five years later, the study found.
Even nonviolent kids’ shows like Rugrats and The
Flintstones carried a still substantial risk for attention
problems, though slightly lower.
On the other hand, educational shows, including
Arthur, Barney and Sesame Street had no association
with future attention problems.
Interestingly, the risks only occurred in children younger
than age 3, perhaps because that is a particularly
crucial period of brain development. Those results
echo a different study last month that suggested
TV-watching has less impact on older children’s
behavior than on toddlers.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends
no television for children younger than 2 and limited
TV for older children.
The current study by University of Washington
researchers was prepared for release Monday in
November’s issue of the journal Pediatrics.
Previous research and news reports on TV’s effects
have tended to view television as a single entity,
without regard to content. But “the reality is that it’s not
inherently good or bad. It really depends on what they
watch,” said Dr. Dimitri Christakis, who co-authored
the study with researcher Frederick Zimmerman.
Their study was based on parent questionnaires.
They acknowledge it’s observational data that only
suggests a link and isn’t proof that TV habits cause
attention problems. Still, they think the connection is
The researchers called a show violent if it involved
fighting, hitting people, threats or other violence that
was central to the plot or a main character. Shows listed
included Power Rangers, Lion King and Scooby Doo.
These shows, and other kids’ shows without violence,
also tend to be very fast-paced, which may hamper
children’s ability to focus attention, Christakis said.
Shows with violence also send a flawed message,
namely that “if someone gets bonked on the head
with a rolling pin, it just makes a funny sound and
someone gets dizzy for a minute and then everything
is back to normal,” Christakis said.
Dennis Wharton of the National Association of
Broadcasters, a trade association for stations and
networks including those with entertainment and
educational children’s TV shows, said he had not
had a chance to thoroughly review the research and
declined to comment on specifics.
Wharton said his group believes “there are many
superb television programs for children, and would
acknowledge that it is important for parents to
supervise the media consumption habits of young
The study involved a nationally representative sample
of 967 children whose parents answered governmentfunded
child development questionnaires in 1997
and 2002. Questions involved television viewing
habits in 1997. Parents were asked in 2002 about their
children’s behavior, including inattentiveness, difficulty
concentrating and restlessness.
The researchers took into account other factors that
might have influenced the results—including cultural
differences and parents’ education levels—and still
found a strong link between the non-educational
shows and future attention problems.
Peggy O’Brien, senior vice president for educational
programming and services at the Corporation for Public
Broadcasting, said violence in ads accompanying
shows on commercial TV might contribute to the study
She said lots of research about brain development goes
into the production of educational TV programming
for children, and that the slower pace is intentional.
“We want it to be kind of an extension of play” rather
than fantasy, she said. Source: “Study: Educational TV
for Toddlers OK” by Chicago (AP), © 2008. Reprinted with
permission by The Associated Press.
Step 1 of 6:
Here we are given with an article regarding TV show viewership.
Using the article we need to answer the given questions.
Step 2 of 6:
Here we need to identify the aim of the research article.
It is given that the research is about the TV watching habits of children younger than 3 years.
Thus, the study is about TV-watching by children younger than 3 years.
Step 3 of 6:
Here we need to identify the population of interest.
Here we can observe that the study took into consideration sample of children younger than 3 years.So, the population becomes all the children below age 3 years.
Thus, the population here is all the children below the age group 3 years.