108: A fertilizer railroad car carrying 34,300 gallons of commercial aqueous ammonia (30% ammonia by mass) tips over and spills. The density of the aqueous ammonia solution is 0.88 g/cm3. What mass of citric acid, C(OH)(COOH)(CH2COOH)2, (which contains three acidic protons) is required to neutralize the spill? 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

Solution 108: Here, we are going to calculate the mass of citric acid required to neutralize the spill. Step1: Volume of the ammonia solution used = 34,300 gallons = 34,300 x 3.785 litres [1 gallon = 3.785 litres] = 129825.5 L =129825.5 x 1000 cm 3 [1 L = 1000 cm ] 3 = 1.298 x 10 cm 3 Now, density is defined as mass per unit volume, i.e., Density = mass / volume Therefore, mass = density X volume 8 3 3 3 = 0.88 x 1.298 x 10 cm [(g/cm ) X cm ] = 1.14 x 10 g 8 Thus, mass of the aqueous ammonia solution used = 1.14 x 10 g 8 Step2: Since, the solution contains 30 % ammonia by mass, therefore, 8 Mass of ammonia = (30/100) x 1.14 x 10 g = 0.30 x 1.14 x 10 g 8 8 = 0.342 x 10 g 7 = 3.42 x 10 g Molar...