List the three subatomic particles that compose atoms and give the basic properties (mass and charge) of each.
Solution : (a) To calculate the mass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in each compound Compound A : 30.82gN reacts with 17.60g O = 0.5710g Thus, in Compound A, 1g of N eacts with .5710g of O. Compound B : 30.82 g N reacts with 35.20 g O = 1.1622g Thus, Compound B, 1g o f N reacts with 1.1622g of O. Compound C : 30.82 g N reacts with 70.40 g O = 2.2842g Thus, Compound C, 1g of N reacts with 2.2842g o f O. Compound D : 30.82 g N reacts with 88.00 g O = 2.8552g Thus, Compound D, 1 g f N eacts with 2.8552g f O. Among these the lowest ratio is 0.5710g, so we divide all the obtained results from the smallest number to obtain the integers of each compound. Compound A : = 1 g Therefore, the mass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in Compound A is 1g. Compound B : = 2.0353 g 2g T herefore, he ass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in Compound B is 2g. Compound C : = 4.00 g Therefore, t he ass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in Compound C is 4g. Compound D : = 3.949 g 4g Therefore, t he ass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in Compound D is 4g. (b) How do the numbers in part (a) support Dalton's atomic theory The numbers that are obtained in part (a) support the law of multiple proportion of Dalton’s atomic theory which states that ‘when two elements combine to form more than one compound, the mass of one element, which combines with a fixed mass of the other element, will always be in ratios of whole numbers’.That is ‘If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compound, the masses of B that can combine with a fixed mass of A are in the ratio of small whole numbers’.