What is pressurevolume work? How is it calculated?
Chem 131 (10/10/16-10/21/16) Intro: here are the notes I’ve taken during Prof. Ondov’s lecture and from the textbook Chemistry: Structure and Properties 6th ed ition by Nivaldo J. Tro Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding Background [1970s]: endorphins, aka endogenous morphine, bind to other molecules. Morphine is a molecular imposter mimicking actions of endorphins due to shape. (VSEPR) valence shell electrons pair repulsion theory- accounts for molecular shape for predictions about molecules’ shape 6.1 Shared electrons are not equally shared. δ +partial positive charge δ −partial negative charge polar- positive and negative poles electronegativity- the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond ➢ The larger an atom, the weaker its ability to attract electrons. bond energy- energy required to break a bond Bond polarity depends on difference in electronegativity (ΔE) between two bonding atoms. ➢ The greater the ΔE, the greater the polarity. IfΔE = 0in a covalent bond, then the atoms are shared equally and bond is purely covalent or nonpolar. IfΔE >> 0in an ionic bond, then the electrons are completely transferred to the nonmetal and bond is ionic. ΔE Bond Type 0 − 0.4 Nonpolar covalent 0.4 − 2.0 Polar covalent 2.0 + Ionic dipole moment (μ)- occurs in a separation of positive and negative charge: