Consider the curve shown here for the titration of a weak monoprotic acid with a strong base and answer each question. 0 20 40 60 80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 pH Volume of base added (mL) a. What is the pH and what is the volume of added base at the equivalence point? b. At what volume of added base is the pH calculated by working an equilibrium problem based on the initial concentration and Ka of the weak acid? c. At what volume of added base does pH = pKa? d. At what volume of added base is the pH calculated by working an equilibrium problem based on the concentration and Kb of the conjugate base? e. Beyond what volume of added base is the pH calculated by focusing on the amount of excess strong base added?

Chapter 7 & 8 7.1 – 7.3 Electromagnetic Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation can be described by equations that have the same mathematical form as equations that are used to describe waves. The mathematical description has two oscillating components (vectors) that are at right angles to o each other, and both of them are oriented 90 to the direction that...