×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry: A Molecular Approach - 3 Edition - Chapter 6 - Problem 44e
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry: A Molecular Approach - 3 Edition - Chapter 6 - Problem 44e

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

The air in an inflated balloon (defined as the system)

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 44E Chapter 6

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

4 5 1 326 Reviews
13
1
Problem 44E

Problem 44E

The air in an inflated balloon (defined as the system) warms over a toaster and absorbs 115 J of heat. As it expands, it does 77 kJ of work. What is the change in internal energy for the system?

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

NervousSystem:TheFundamentalsPart2 4/10/1610:29PM RestingMembranePotential • Restingmembranepotentialliesataround-70mV • Differenceinelectricalchargeacrossthemembrane • Alwaysnegative • Insideofthecellismorenegativethatoutside RoleofIonChannelsInMembranePotential • Leakychannelsarealwaysopen • Gatedchannelsarenotalwaysopen • VoltageGatedchannelsonlyopeninresponsetoavoltagechange TwoFactorsContributetoRMP • Concentrationgradient:ionswillmovedowntheirconcentrationgradient • Electricalgradient:ionswillmovedowntheirelectricalgradient • Balancebetweenthetwoistheelectrochemicalgradient • IonConcentrationinRMP • Moresodiumontheoutsideandmorepotassiumontheinsideofthecell • RoleofPlasmaPermeabilityinRMP • Notpermeabletoproteinanions • VerylittleNa+ispermeable • MostlypermeabletoK+ions • K+andNa+contributemosttoRMP • WhathappenstodisruptRMP • Gradedpotentialswhichoccurindendritesandareincomingsignals(varyinstrength) • Actionpotentialsoccurinaxonsandareoutgoingsignals(allornothing) • ChangesinPolarity • Depolarization:membranepotentialismorepositive • Hyperpolarization:membranepotentialismorenegativethanresting • Repolarization:membranepotentialismorenegativeafterdepolarization • GradedPotentials • Shortandlocalized • Magnitudeanddistancearedeterminedbythestrengthofthestimulus • TwoInstancesofGradedPotentials • ReceptorPotentialorGeneratorPotential:whenasensoryneuronfires • PostsynapticPotential:whenanaxonmeetswiththedendritesofanotherneuron • Axosomatic,axoaxonal,axodendriticsynapses • ActionPotentials • 1.RestingState:nomembranepotentialchange • 2.Na+flowsintothecellbecausethevoltagegatedchannelshaveopened • 3.Repolarization:sodiumchannelsclose,andpotassiumchannelsopen,allowing potassiumtoflowoutofthecell • 4.K+ionscontinuetoleavethecellcausinghyperpolarization • 5.Sodiumpotassiumpumprestoresrestingmembranepotential • Threshold • Actionpotentialsdonotoccurifvoltagedoesnotreach-55mV • Notalldepolarizationscauseactionpotentials • PropagationofActionPotentials • Localvoltagechangecausessodiumchannelstoopen • Thoseopenchannelscausethesodiumchannelsfurtherdowntheneurontoopen • Thishappensallthewaydowntheneuron • Strongerstimuliresultinmoreactionpotentials • RefractoryPeriods • Timewhenanotheractionpotentialcan’thappen • Absolute:actionpotentialwillnotoccur,regardlessofstimulusstrength • Relative:actionpotentialwillonlyoccurwithasuperstrongstimulus • HowFastDoActionPotentialsTravel • Factors:diameterofaxonandamountofmyelination • RoleofMyelinationinActionPotentialVelocity • Innon-myelinatedaxons,actionpotentialshavetoconstantlyregenerate,so conductionisslow • Inmyelinatedaxons,themyelinsheathhousesareasoftheaxonwithnoleakychannels, meaningthevoltageoftheactionpotentialdoesnotdecayasittravels.Thisleadstofast conduction • MultipleSclerosis • Whitebloodcellsattackmyelin • Causespoornervesignaling • Mostlyseeninwomen 4/10/16 10:29 PM 4/10/16 10:29 PM

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 6, Problem 44E is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

Other solutions

Discover and learn what students are asking













People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

The air in an inflated balloon (defined as the system)