We will see in Chapter that semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals. The only two elements in the periodic table that are technologically useful semiconductors are silicon and germanium. Integrated circuits in computer chips today are based on silicon. Compound semiconductors are also used in the electronics industry. Examples are gallium arsenide. GaAs: gallium phosphide, GaP; cadmium sulfide. CdS; and cadmium selenide. CdSe. (a) What is the relationship between the compound semiconductors' compositions and the positions of their elements on the periodic table relative to Si and Ge? (b) Workers in the semiconductor industry refer to “II—VI” and “III—V” materials, using Roman numerals. Can you identify which compound semiconductors are II—VI and which are III—V? (c) Suggest other compositions of compound semiconductors based on the positions of their elements in the periodic table.
A. Wallace’s Type a. Monotheism i. Priests, one God: complex states, Judaism, Christianity, Islam b. Olympian i. Priests, gods with human characteristics, Archaic States with complex farming, ancient Rome, Greece, Egypt, Polynesia c. Communal i. Shared beliefs d. Shamanistic i. Supernatural abilities of certain individuals: bands B. Rites of Passage a. Stage in life course i. Baptism, confirmation, marriage, death b. Special ritual to mark transition, especially the transition from childhood to adulthood c. Van Gennep, 3 stages i. Separation ii. Transition iii. Reincorporation d. Transition is associated with change, instability, “liminality” i. Special solidarity, “communistas,” among people who make transition together C. Supernatural and Social control a. Fear the divine retribution b. Witchcraft and sorcery D. Religion and culture a. Max weber: protestant ethic and capitalism i. Observed that capitalism and industrialization took place first in protestant areas of Europe ii. Protestant values emphasized hard work and the accumulation of wealth as the way to salvation iii. Capitalism develops as people work hard and then save and invest and reinvest their money iv. Over time, religious values become more securitized v. Religious values -> everyday life E. Religion & change revitalized movements a. Steady state b. Period of individual stress c. Period of cultural disorientation i. Caused by welfare, disease, economic problems ii. Handsome Lake 1. Matrilineal d. Revitalization i. Leader has religious experiences, given charter ii. Communicates iii. Followers iv. Opposition v. Compromise vi. Routinization, acceptance e. New steady state F. Secular