The Sun radiates energy at the rate of 3.801026 W from its 5500 C surface into dark empty space (a negligible fraction radiates onto Earth and the other planets). The effective temperature of deep space is 270 C . (a) What is the increase in entropy in one day due to this heat transfer? (b) How much work is made unavailable?
● Thales of Ionia: the first/founder of western philosophy. He claimed that “everything is water.” ○ Everything is water: if change happens, yet some things do not change, then there must be some basic substance making up everything. ○ His colleagues rejected his theory and tried to come up with their own later on. They were not punished for rejecting it because it held no divine authority. ○ As his disciples came up with their own theories, Democritus theorized the existence of atoms down the line. ● Logos vs. Mythos: Logos is the logical creation and justification of ideas using rational thinking, while mythos comprises supernatural stories that explain the world around us. ● The methodology of philosophy: ○ Theory Postulation: “Everything is water.” ○ Justification: “Everything is water because everything is made up of a basic substance.” ○ Critical review: “Everything cannot be water because that cliff is dry.” ○ Revision: “Everything is made up of atoms.” ● Philosophy vs. Science: ○ They used to be similar: science would have been considered natural philosophy back then. ○ Both use the same dialectic method of proposing and rejecting theories, but each seeks to answer different questions in different ways. ○ Science answers empirical questions: answers can be found, recorded, observed, and