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Another known cause of red shift in light is the source being in a high gravitational

College Physics for AP® Courses | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9781938168932 | Authors: Gregg Wolfe, Irina Lyublinskaya, Douglas Ingram ISBN: 9781938168932 372

Solution for problem 4 Chapter 34

College Physics for AP® Courses | 1st Edition

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College Physics for AP® Courses | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9781938168932 | Authors: Gregg Wolfe, Irina Lyublinskaya, Douglas Ingram

College Physics for AP® Courses | 1st Edition

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Problem 4

Another known cause of red shift in light is the source being in a high gravitational field. Discuss how this can be eliminated as the source of galactic red shifts, given that the shifts are proportional to distance and not to the size of the galaxy.

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Selection • VISTA- Variation, Inheritance, Selection, Time, Adaptation • What drives selection • Food source • Predators • Pathogens • Climate • “Survival of the fittest” ◦ misleading- implies direct competition among individuals • Reproductive success or Relative fitness ◦ Its all about who can be able to survive and pass along their genes/heritable trait to the next generation • Examples of this is the Finches – Galapagos Islands ◦ 1977 severe drought ◦ Food source changed to only hard nuts ◦ 85% of finches died • Over time the population adapted to the environment. ◦ Population evolve over time Microevolution • Genes- control development in beaks of birds • Alleles-versions of this gene ◦ b= less growth ◦ B= more growth • Possible phenotypes ◦ small beak ◦ average beak ◦ large beak • Before the drought no certain combination had the advantage after the drought the large beak birds did • With no variation in the beak size the population would have not been able to evolve • Microevolution- a change in allele frequencies in populations over time. • Natural election ◦ Three types of selection • Directional selection- favors individuals at one end of phenotypic range (FF) • Disruptive selection- favors extreme (ff,FF) • Stabilizing selection- favors intermediate variants (Ff) • Microevolution-a change in allele frequencies in a population over time • Before drought ◦ 10 B alleles (10/22)=45% ◦ 12 b alleles (12/22)=55% • After drought ◦ 16 B alleles (16/18)=89% ◦ 2 b alleles (2/18)=11% • Apply Hardy-Weinberg principle to see if evolution is occurring • Hardy-Weinberg alleles frequencies and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant from generation to generation

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Chapter 34, Problem 4 is Solved
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Textbook: College Physics for AP® Courses
Edition: 1
Author: Gregg Wolfe, Irina Lyublinskaya, Douglas Ingram
ISBN: 9781938168932

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Another known cause of red shift in light is the source being in a high gravitational