Why do deep-sea divers breathe a mixture of helium and oxygen?
Week 2 Feb. 22 Test 2 March 11 Rulings are iblue Underlininformation is important Bold text is vocabulary ■ The Civil War ● Yes it was about slavery and whether or not it could exist ● It was also a war about who we in charge the national government or the states ● Amendments ○ Thirteenth ■ Outlawed slavery ○ Fourteenth ■ Defined citizenship, included due process clause ○ Fifteenth ■ Gave newly freed men the right to vote ■ 1863 ● Emancipation proclamation ● 3.4 Reasons for the decline of state power ○ Fourteenth amendment ■ “All personorn or naturaliz in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizen of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.” ■ Put in to nullify the ruDred Scott ■ Due process clause ● “No state shall make or enforce an law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of laor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” ● Exactly the same as in the fifth amendment ● FixesBarron v Baltimore ■ Equal protection Clause ● No state shall make or enforce an law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process oflor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” ○ Sixteenth amendment ■ Passed by congress July 2,1909 ■ Ratified February 3,1913 ■ Changes a port in of Article 1 section 9 ● “The congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regart t any census or enumeration” ○ New Deal ■ Establishment of the foundation of social welfare programs, including Social Security (old age pensions, disability payments, unemployment insurance and others) ○ Ruling on Brown v Board of Education ■ Court cited teourteenth Amendment’sdue processand equal protectionlauses ■ Over the years since 1950s, many rulings in areas of civil rights and liberties ■ This ruling makes schools integrated ○ Refusal of states to grant and protect civil rights ■ The refusal of states led to legislative action from Congress and president and judicial action Supreme Court to enforce rights ■ These rights have expanded over time to not only African Americans but also women, Native Americans, disabled persons, same sex couples ○ Refusal of states to protect the rights of persons accused of crime ■ This refusal led to federal legislative and musical action in areas such as confessions, notification of rights, protection of people n prisons, and so on ○ The use of commerce clause ○ Reemergence of issue ■ Ronald reagan ● In his inaugural address in 1981 ● “The federal government did not create the states, the sites created the federal government” ● Upheld states rights through judicial appointees ● Chapter 4 ● Civil liberties ○ Interesting fact ■ The US has 5% of the world's population but 25% of the world's prisoners ○ 4.1 civil liberties ■ The bill of rights was writames Madison ■ The proposed amendments were sent to the states in 1789 ■ Most provisions were approved by 1791 ■ By 2016 the bill of rights will be 225 years old ■ Inspired by Virginia because Virginia would not ratify the Constitution without the Bill of Rights ■ The bill of rights applied only to congress not to states ● Barron v Baltimor 1831 confirmed this ● Was undone by the Fourteenth amendment in 1868 ● Most states had their own bill or rights ■ Incorporation process ● When legislation is incorporated into state levels. The states had to incorporate the bill of rights per the fourteenth amendment ● Some argued that it as the entire bill of rights ○ This idea was rejected by Supreme Court ■ However Supreme Court has said there is variousundamental rights hat all people have ■ Fundamental right ● Rights that are not listed in the Constitution or the bill or rights ○ Marriage ○ Children ○ Vote ○ Privacy ○ Travel freely ■ Selective incorporation ● Take part of the bill of rights and apply them to the states ■ Amendments not yet incorporated ● Third amendment ○ Quartering soldiers ● Seventh amendment ○ About jury trials in civil suits ● Parts of the fifth amendment ○ About grand juries ● Eighth amendment ○ Prohibits against excessive bail or fines ○ 4.2 freedom of religion ■ Quoted text ● Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;r abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances ■ There is no national religion ■ We as citizens are allow to proactive as we chose ■ If it is legal you can do it for religious purposes if it was illegal the practice done in any setting be it religious or not it is still illegal ○ Belief vs Action ■ While the freedom to believe is absolute the freedom to at is not ● Can you deny your child life saving care ○ Yes but the court can step in ● Can you have more than one spouse at a time ○ No ● Can you use illegal drugs as part of you or religious ceremony ○ No if it is legal you can do it for religious purposes if it was illegal the practice done in any setting be it religious or not it is still illegal ○ The Establishment Clause ■ Congress shall make no law establishing a religion ■ Has been interpreted that the government cannot favor new religion over another and also cannot suppr to religion over nonreligion ■ Two Perspectives ● Wall of Separation ○ This is the clause from which we get the concept that there should be a wall of separation between church and state ■ Thomas Jefferson idea ○ 1/3 Americans do not believe in the idea of the separation of church and state, and think that government should be supportive of religion ○ Applies to schools, school prayer, bible reading ● Accommodationist perspective ○ When government aids religion for a secular purpose ■ Saying the pledge of allegiance and also money saying “in God we trust” ■ Rulings ● 1960s ○ Teacher led and school sanctioned prayers unconstitutional ■ Earl Warren Chief Justice ● 1978 ○ Supreme Court rejected louisiana’s teaching of creationism ● 1980 ○ Unconstitutional to require posting of Ten Commandments in public school classrooms ● 1985 ○ Supreme Court rejected Alabamans moment of silence ● 1992 ○ School sponsored prayer at graduation is unconstitutional ● 1993 ○ Supreme Court ruled that religious group can use public school facilities if other groups can do so ● 2000 ○ School prayer at a football game is unconstitutional ■ Accommodationist perspective ○ 1984 ■ Lynch v Donnelly ■ Displays of religious and nonreligious items public property are ok ● You can put up Mary and Joseph and candy canes, reindeer, penguins, snowmen etc. ○ 1989 ■ Supreme court ruled that menorah could be apart of the display ● Because Mary and Joseph were allowed then the menorah are allowed ○ Assistance to religious schools is ok as long as it is secular ■ You cannot use federally funded buildings to teach anything related to religion ○ Current issues ■ Some argue today that government should be more accommodating when it comes to certain issues ● Example ○ Should public officials not carry it any of their duties when the official says that doing so would violate their religious views ■ KIM DAVIS! ○