Use charge balance to determine x in the formula for the sorosilicate bertrandite, Be4Si2O7(OH)x.
Wednesday, February 24, 2016 State and Local Government Class Notes Practical Consequences Four Positive and Four Negative Checks and Balances State leaders and state government can serve as a check on the federal government. State leaders can articulate and ﬁght new policies. Ex. When Obama proposed the new immigration policy, southern states who were actually dealing with immigration chimed in to say that his plan would not work. Arizona and Texas Governor immigration plan. Ex. Gov. Bobby Jindal after Nat’l Gov. Assn. When he walked out because ehe opposed Obamas new plan. Lawsuits Ex. South Dakota v. Dole - failure to make states increase the drinking age. Ex. Immigration action (17 states) - Obama wants to give new status to illegal immigrants, 17 states sued and won. Ex. Kentucky on coal regulations - Conway joins state leaders to stop EPA coal regulation in Kentucky. Subcontracting Obama cannot make states participate (subcontract) in Obamacare. Kentucky did participate at ﬁrst under Steve Bashear, but with a new governor (Matt Bevins) we may not participate. Laboratories of Democracy - The Diffusion of Policy Innovation States have an easier time experimenting with new policy because they are smaller and they all usually agree with each other on a certain issue. Ex. Smoke Free Public Spaces 1 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Some states picked up these bans in order to see if places with bans took a hit, they did not. Ex. Lotteries for Education (KEES in Ky. and HOPE in Ga.) This lottery helped set up scholarships for students to go to college, not only for humanitarian reasons, but because it looks good. Ex. Welfare Reform Tommy Thompson (WI). A few states had tried to reform state welfare programs. Wisconsin, a liberal states, was one of the ﬁrst. Ex. Government-Run Health Insurance RomneyCare - Mitt Romney tried a Universal health care system in Mass. Policy Fit Not every state has the same needs as far as policy goes. Some states prefer low tax polices and others do not. It has as much to do with what the voters want as it does with the conditions in the state as far as what they can tax. States with oil and gas tax more than those who do not have it. States vs. Poverty - states with a lot of poverty want these taxes in order to pay for their poor. Versions of Federalism - people have an idea that policy is kind of like a layer cake, but it is really like a marble cake where everything kind of works together. In reality it is more like a fence where each stake is a policy and the horizontal wood is the federal, state and local levels. Cannot Pool Resources when the national government is responsible for more, there is a lower chance that one state will be slammed when there is a collapse in a major source of income for certain states. The most vulnerable area of policy is Education when money is missing. Race to the Bottom Social Welfare Policies, when they are decentralized an unhealthy dynamic develops. The more generous you are, the more demands get placed on you. 2 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Ex. Chicago, in Illinois (who is vernally pretty conservative) and Wisconsin (liberal because of German and Scandinavian inﬂuences), had citizens who were moving to Wisconsin who had better more generous welfare system. Wisconsin got tired of this and elected a Republican. It is better when the entire country is uniform so that no one place becomes a welfare magnets. Race to make policy cheaper and cheaper. Complexity Having different policy in every state makes it very hard to keep everything straight. This was the issue with gun control and same sex marriage. Greatest Good for the Greatest Number A state is deciding what kind of music will be played on their state radio will play, country or rap. Th population is 4000. In the ﬁrst region, 1000 people live there and 60% prefer rap. In the second, 1000 people live there and 55% prefer rap. In the third, 1000 people live there and 44% prefer rap. In the fourth, 1000 people live there and 40% prefer rap. If done by the majority of the entire country, rap will be played making 2010 people are happy. If each state can choose, 2310 are more happy by decentralizing the policy. Why would we not just decentralize everything Because there are people who are not interested in what they want, rather they are interested in banning what they do not want. Assume that you need 57% approval to ban something. So in region 1, rap will be banned, in region 2 country will be banned. Therefore oppressing other regions. Risk of Tyranny of the Majority However, if you were to want to ban it nationally, it would only have a 50.3% approval therefore not allowing a ban on rap music nationally. This is the same way we came about segregation with a a majority that is strong enough to oppress the minority. 3