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Calculate the heat of reaction for rhodochrosite is -

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 45E Chapter 23

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 45E

Problem 45E

Calculate the heat of reaction         for rhodochrosite is - 894.1 kJ/mol.)

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Sudan,Ethiopiaand Somalia Sudan: BritainlookedatSudanaspart of theSuezstrategicregionandRedSeastrategicregion.Theysawit as partof Egypt,neverasits owncolony.Itwas controlledfromCairo,muchlikeSomalilandwascontrolled fromAden. ThecapitalofmodernSudanisKhartoum,wheretheBlueandWhiteNilescometogether. TheWorldWars: DuringWWI,Egyptwas sickof Britainandwantedfreedom,butthenWWIIcame.FromWWI on,Sudan wasjusta part of Egypt,and theywerecontrolledasone.In1952, afterWWII,Egypt was goingthrough significantchanges,andthewidertrendofnationalismthatsweptAfricaafterWWIIhadtakenroot thereaswell. WWIIawakenednationalismainthecolonies,becauseitwasawarofideology,withfascismtryingto destroywesternideasoffreedom.Afterbeatingthefascists,westernEuropetriedtorevitalisetheir valuesoffreedom,andthisledtoideasthatpeopleshouldrulethemselves.Fascismisverysimilarto colonialism,andtheyhadjustfoughtfascism.AnothermajorcontributionwastheformingoftheUN, whichwasjoinedbyLatinAmericawhichwasalreadyfreeandAsiancountriesthatwerebecoming decolonised.Finally,thewarhaddestroyedthemajorcolonialpowers,theylostalotofresourcesand losttheireconomicpower. Thetwonewsuperpowerswerenotcolonialpowers.Alsosignificantwastheemergenceofthe nationalisteliteinthecolonies.Thefirstelitehadbeenthechildrenoftraditionalleaderswhowere moreinterestedinreformingcolonialismtobetreatedequally,butwerenotintunewiththemasses. ThepeoplewhohadfoughtinEuropesawthefightingandpovertythere,andtheywantedoutofthe brutalcolonialregimes.Allthesepeoplewerethecommonersandsawwhatwashappeningintherest oftheworld,andwantedout. Sudanand Egypt inthe 1950s: InEgyptin 1952, 3 movementsconfrontedEgyptianindependence.Onemovement:Egypthaditsown monarchy,butitwas verycorruptand elitist.TheBritishputtheminplaceandrespectedthem.A secondmovement,mostlyintheSudan,wastheMuslimBrotherhood.Theywereareligiousmovement thatidealisedtheircultureandsawanychangeas a threatto Egyptianculture.Thethirdelementwas themilitary.YoungofficerstrainedinBritainwantedtodevelopEgypt,makeitmorelikeRussiaandthe US. Nasser(sometimesspelledNasir)emergedastheleaderofEgypt,andhewantedtoindustrialiseitso thatitcouldproduceitsown things.Hewas sickofjust makingcottonforEurope.He wasveryradical in whathewantedtodo,and foughtagainsttheMB a lot. Hetriedto influenceSudan,sayingiftheygot ridoftheBritishtheycouldbeindependent.Hewastryingtosuggestself-governanceforthem,andit wasfirstmadeitsowncolonyandthen becameeffectivelyindependentaround1956. Sudanhadtwobasicreligiousmovementsthatwerecommon.OnewasaMahdistmovementcalled Ansar.Itwas a productof earlierresistancetocolonialruleintheSudan,withareligiousleader organisingresistanceagainsttheBritishandEgyptians.HecreatedaMahdistatethere.That movement haditsownsuccessors,theAnsarmovement,ledbyhisson.TheBritishcreatedanothermovement calledKhatimiyyatocounterthenationalismatthatperiod.Intheend,politicalpartieswereintroduced by1956. Generally,afterWWII,Europeansbuiltthemodelofdemocracyintheircolonies.TheBritishstartedto createaparliamentandconstitutionandelections.TheMahdistmovementcreatedamajorpolitical partycalledtheUmmaparty. Themodelsthatwerebeingmadeweren'tgoingtowork,because democracyneedsanestablishedbackground.Upuntilthe1950s theyweren'tinterestedinthat,they werealldictatorialstateswithnooneallowedtoexpressthemselves.Allofasudden,afterthefallof fascism,westernEuropetriedtomakethecoloniesmorelikethem.Thesemodelsweredestinedtofail. Thisisstillthecase,aswesaw withtheArab SpringinplaceslikeLibyaandTunisia.Fromthe1960s, colonialpowersgaveindependenceintheformofdemocraticmodels. IttookBritain150 yearsto makea democraticsystem.Toevengetclose,theyneededanindustrialclass andstructures.Theytriedtoimposeitsuddenlyfrom1950and on inthecolonies,andtheconditions werenotright.TheyforcedtheMahdistreligiousmovementtobecomeaparty.Therewasalsoa NationalUnionistParty,whichwasrunbytheKhatimiyya.TheyhadtoexistwithintheBritish constitutionandthesetwocompetedinelections.TheUmmagroup,theMahdists,wereveryanti- Egyptian.TheUnionists,however,werepro-Egyptian. EgyptclaimedtheSudan,andNasserwantedSudantobeintegratedintoEgypt.Sudanbecameamajor forceafterindependencein1956. TheBritishweremoreinterestedinNorthernSudanafterthis. RegionalconflictinSudan: Sudanisdividedintotworegions,northandsouth.NorthernSudanhasathousandyearhistoryofArabs cominginandtradingand integrating,ahistoryofIslamisationandArabisation.TheyareMuslimand speakArabic.Duringthecolonialperiod,thisregionwascontrolledandruledseparatelyfromthesouth. SouthSudanisChristian,andhasitsown variousNiloticorAzandelanguages. TheBritishdidnotallow ChristianmissionariestogototheNorth,onlythesouth.The SouthbecameChristianandsortofEnglish speaking.IntheNorth,it'sArabicwithalittleEnglish.TheBritishallowedtraditionalreligiousleadersto ruleNorthernSudan,aspartof theirsystemofindirectrule.Themosteffective,efficientandcheapway torulepeopleistoletthemrulethemselvesandhavetheirrulersworkforyou.Thetraditionalleader wasloyaltothenewpower,notto thepeople. IntheSouth,theBritishalsousedindirectrulethroughtraditionalleaders,butnotIslamicrule.They triedtoputthetwo regionstogetherin1956, and themore organisedNorthwoundupruling.AsSudan becameindependent,thesouthernoneshadnosayinanything.TheNorthernerswereamajorfactorin controllingtheSouth.Therewerevaguepromisesaboutcreatingasinglestate,doingsomethingabout thedivide,buttheconstitutionjustsaidSudanwasanIslamicstate,buttheSouthwasChristian. In1962, the firstcivilwaremerged.Colonialismcreatedtwosocietieswithtwotraditions,andputthem togetherandgaveoneofthemallthepower.Thiswasalwaysgoingto happen.Aseparatistmovement inSouthSudancalledAnyanyaemerged,andwantedtomaketheirownstateandleavetheNorth,who didnothingforthem.TheyunderstoodthattheBritishhadleftthemfordead,prettymuch.Insteadof addressingtheSouthernproblem,thenorthernleadershadjusttakenoverandfeudedbetweenthe Ummasand NationalUnionists. FirstMilitaryCoup: Therewasa militarycoupin1958, aftertheUmma party withdrewformthecoalitiongovernment they'dformedwiththeNationalUnionistsin1956.This oftenhappenedafterindependenceinAfrica. Ghanabecameindependentin1957,and in 1960 therewasa militarycoup.Thesenewgovernments werecivilians,butthemilitaryawesthemostorganisedclassbuiltbycolonialism. ColonialismgavetwoimportantcontributionstoAfrica.Onewasinfrastructure,madetoextract resourcesratherthantodevelopthesociety.Theotherwasthemilitary.Whentheywerecolonising Africa,theywouldrecruitsoldiersfromtheirAfricancoloniesandusethemtocoloniseacrossthe continent.Theyalsousedthemintheirownwar,with1millioninWWIand2 millioninWWII.The militaryclasswasverystrong,anda productof colonialism.Duringtheprocessofindependence,they werenotconsideredtobepartofthesystem,sincetheyweremakingciviliangovernments.Whenever thecivilianleaderswouldfail,themilitarywouldcomeinandpeoplesupportedthat.Mostnations becameindependentinthe1960s,and by 1970 mostof themweremilitarystates.Civiliangovernment hadjustfailed. In1958, the militaryleaderGeneralIbrahimAboudtookoverSudan.Ingeneral,thesemilitaryleaders wereorganisedanddisciplined,brutcorruptanduneducated.Themilitarybuiltsingle-partystates,and becamedictatorial,ofteninsimilarwaystotheEasternEuropeans.Theywouldclaimsocialismor Marxism.Thiswasthefirstcoupin Africa.Aboudwasnotradical,however,hewasconservative.Most Arableaderswantedtochangetheirsocieties,buthedidnot.Also,heneveraddressedtheissueofthe south.Hemadeseveralmistakesthatledtounrest. Whenthesouthstartedtocreatetheirown movement,hestartedclosingmissionaryschoolsinthe south,inanattemptto Islamisethem.Heattackedtheireducatedelite,tryingtoArabiseandIslamise thesouth,whichmadethemovementsevenmoreaggressive. Hecalledfora round-tableconferencetoresolvetheissues,butthatdidn'tworkout.Hismilitaryrule failedfortworeasons.First,hewashavingissueswithreligiousgroups,andsecondlyhedidnothing aboutthesouth.In1969 therewasanothercoup whichhada majorimpact.Young officerstookover, similartomanyothercoups.Theheadof thisrevolutionwasNimeiri.In1969therewerethreemajor revolutionsinAfrica.OnewasinSomalia,whichlasteduntilthedisintegrationoftheSomalistate. AnotherwasGaddafiofLibya,andthethirdwas thisone. Duringthisperiod,nationalistsexpectedthingstochange,peoplewouldbefreeandwouldgetjobsand woulddevelop.Leadersmadealotofpromises,butcouldn'tgothroughwithitso themilitarytookover. Peoplecelebratedthisbecauseitwasseenasapathto order. SudanunderNimeiri: SoNimeiritookoverSudanin1969. He was radical,withslogansofcreatingliberaldemocracy.He createdtheRevolutionaryCommandCouncil,lookingforextensivecontroloftheeconomy.Inthe 1970s, he triedtocontrolallthe religiousmovementsandjailedtheirleaders,gettingridofthe conservativeelements.Sudanalsohadamajorcommunistparty.Thereweretwotrendswhenhetook power:thetraditionalistgroups,andtheleftists,suchasthecommunistpartyandthetradeunions.He gotridof bothof theseandstartedto buildhisownpersonalrule. In1971, he launchedamajorattack on the Communistelements,consolidatingpowerforhimself.The Communistsinthelate1970s gotrid of himand brieflytookover,buthecamebackand tookpower again.Hecameout to negotiatewiththesouthaftergettingridofhisenemies,in1972.Hecalledfora conferencetobeheldinAddisAbaba,calledtheAddisAbabaAgreementof1972.In thisagreement, Nimeiriandthesouthagreedthatthesouthwouldhaveinternalautonomy,beingpartofSudanbut electingtheirowngovernmentandrulingthemselves.Hecreatedapartyforthem,theSudanSocialist UnionParty. HewantedtomakeSudaninto"thebread basketoftheArab world"usingthesouth,arichlyagricultural area.Healsobuilta majorcanal thereto providewatertothenorthand to Egypt. Hehad hisown intentionsinthenegotiations,ofcourse.Eventhough70%ofthepopulationwasinthenorth,the richestagriculturalareasandtheoilwereintheSouth.Theoilhadjustbeendiscoveredatthetimeof theagreementandAmericanoilcompanies,specificallyChevron,alsowantedtoexploitit. Threethingswereaddressedatthenegotiations.SouthernSudanwouldhaveitsowninternal autonomy,andwouldbepartyoftheSocialistSudanParty.Inthelater1970s, Nimeiriwasnotfavoured bytheNorth,sincehe'djailedmostoftheirleaders.Hetriedtomakeamajorconferenceofnational reconciliation.Hetriedtoaccommodatetheseleaders. The1980s: TheMuslimBrotherhood(MB)isveryimportanttothehistoryofSudan.Hassan al-Turabiwastheleader oftheparty,a veryreligiousfundamentalist.HewasalsopartoftheUmma party. In1983, the AddisAbabaAgreementwiththesouthhadbeenmanipulatedbyNimeiri,whotriedto restructureitandputhispeopleinpower.Anewmovementemerged,calledtheSudanPeople's LiberationArmy,orSPLA,headedbyJohnGarang.Theywantedtosecede,becausetheiroilwasbeing takenbyChevron,andtheywereunderthecontrolofthenorth.Theybegancarryingout attacks. By1985, Nimeiriwasremovedfrompower,andpowershiftedtoamoreradicalgroup.TheMB would eventuallytakeover.Hislastingimpactwashisuseofforcetocontrolthenation,andhisjailingof opposingleadersuntilthereconciliation.Hewasunabletoresolvetheissueofthesouth.He accommodatedtheMBin thereconciliationandtheybecameverypowerful. Justbeforehelostpower,theMBforcedNimieritointroduceSharialaws.Thecountrywasn't exclusivelyIslamic,buttheMBwantedtoinstitutethisreligiousformoflawintotheconstitution, forcingtheSouthintoit.FortheMB, thereligiousleaderismoreimportantthanthestateleader.The SPLAbecamea much moreradicalmovement,andtheycalledforanotherconferencein1988.By 1989, anewmilitarygrouptookover,underBashir,thecurrentpresident,muchmoreMB-oriented.TheSPLA didn'treallywanttosecede,butbecauseoftheinstitutionofSharialawsandtheNorthnotlisteningto them,theyhadtotry to leave. OncetalkshadgonethroughwithlettingtheSouthgainautonomy,Darfurcameforwardwantingtobe treatedthesame.TheChineseobjectedthattheSecurityCouncilwouldpassnolegislationonthat, becausetheyhadavestedinterestinit. Ethiopia--HaileSelassie: HaileSelassiewasaveryimportantEthiopianleader.HisfatherwasthegovernororHarar, an early Islamiccityintheregion.BeforeSelassiebecameking,Menelikwastheleader.Menelikhadnochildren, andwasrelatedtoHaileSelassie'sgrandmother.HaileSelassiewasveryyoung,andaregentkeptthe throneforhimintheearlyyearsofhis life.Heruledinthe1930s whenItalyinvadedandtookoverfora fewyears.TheItaliansalsowantedtocoloniseBritishSomalilandandtheGermanswantedEgypt,sothe BritishandFrenchwenttowarwiththem,takingoverthewholeregionandgivingEthiopiabackits independence.TheyalsogaveEretriatoEthiopia,becausetheydidn'twantMuslimscontrollingaccess totheRedSea.The movementsinEretriaweredivided,somesayingtheyshouldbewithEthiopiaand somesayingtheyshouldbeindependent,withotherscallingforaconfederacy.In1960, HaileSelassie integratedthemintoEthiopia. HaileSelassiecamebackaftertheItalianoccupationendedandruleduntil1974.Hewantedto moderniseEthiopia,butbykeepingtheroyalline.MenelikandHaileSelassiehadcreatedland-owning classes.Hewantedtomoderniseincertainwaysbutkeeptheroyalfamilyandtraditionalclassesand thetraditionalchurchasitas. He wantedtomodernisethearmy,though. HecourtedtheAmericans,becausehewantedaidanddidn'ttrusttheFrenchorBritish.Hetriedto bringcommercialagriculture,openinggoodstobesenttotheUS. He wouldsendthingslikecoffeeto theoutsidefortrade.Thisisolatedthepeoplewhousedtoownland,withEthiopiagettingmoneyfrom internationalcapitalism. MenelikandSelassieexpandedtheEthiopianstateandcolonisedthesurroundingareas.Landlords madepeopleworkandwerepaid,andbecameveryrichwhiletheworkersbecamemuchpoorer.He wasnottryingto builda democraticstate,buta controlledtraditionalsystem. Therewasa significantresponsefromEthiopiangroups.TherewasamilitarycoupfromtheEthiopian royalguardbut hetookcare of that.He wantedto balancetheoldstructuresofchurch andlandlords owningland,butalsowantedtomoderniseandopencertaindoorsofagriculturetotradecoffeeto America.By1960, peoplewereunhappyandthefirstcouphappened.Hegotridofthat. Afterthefailedcoup,studentsstartedtoriseup.EducatedeliteweregoingtoEuropeandcomingback, havingseenhowdevelopededucationwaseverywhereelse.Theintellectualelitewerecomingbackto Ethiopiaandwerecriticalofthesystem,sayingitwasn'treformitwasaboutcentralisingpowerand keepingtraditionalstructures.Andchangeswerecosmetic.Then,Ethiopiabegantoexpandeducation. Studentswouldspendayearteachingintheinterior,andtheysawthepovertyinsomeareas.Theysaw thatitwas wrongand decidedtheyhadtodo something. Intermittentpeasantrevoltsbecamemorefrequent,buttheywererepressedquickly.Innorthern Ethiopia,theTigreareas,peoplewerealsogettingpoorer.Peoplewereusingthelandtoofrequently andtopsoilwaslosingnutrients,soitwashardertogrowfood.Peoplewerelookingforotherwaysout thancapitalism,becauseitcreatedclassdistinctionsandseparationofwealth. Inthe1970s, studentmovements,peasantuprisingsandfamineinTigreareaswereallmajorissues. Eritreanswerealsoorganisingthemselves,wantingindependence.Itallcametoa headfollowingan armyrebellionin1974.HaileSelassiewasabletoquellthis.Oneofthemeninchargeoftherevoltwas armyrebellionin1974.HaileSelassiewasabletoquellthis.Oneofthemeninchargeoftherevoltwas hispersonalbodyguard,butitfailed. EthiopiaafterHaile Selassie: Thearmycreateda committeecalledtheDergue,whichwouldtakeoverpowerfromHaileSelassie, jailinghim.Theyeventuallydeposedanddetainedhim,andhediedayearlater.Afterthis,amilitary governmenttookpowerin1974.Ethiopiahad alwaysbeenpro-West,butwiththistheexperienceda shifttotheEast.Initially,GeneralAmanAndom,arespectedgeneral,wasgivenpower.Hewasfrom Eritreabutveryintegrated.Whilehewasholdingameeting,ajuniorcolonelnamedMengistuHaile Mariankilledeveryoneandtookpower.Hewaspro-Soviet,andbecamepartoftheEasternBlocin 1977. TheSovietslovedthisbecausetheywantedtoturnthefeudalstateintoasocialiststate.Heruled until1990. AfterthefalloftheSovietUnionin1989, Mengistuhad nomore allies.HenegotiatedwiththeWest, whoallowedhimtogotoliveinZimbabweifheleftpeacefully.Allthenationalistmovementsin EthiopiawerecalledtoaconferenceinBritaintodiscusswhowouldleadthecountry.InLondon,they choseanewparty andreturnedto Ethiopia. GeneralAndomwasaveryAmharisedperson,andhisdeathledtoaleftmove.Thenewmilitary leadershipwassupportedinthisbyitsrevolutionaryallies,thestudentmovementsandthepeasants.In 1977, HaileMarianbecamea ruthlessleader,andcreatedaone-partystate.Hecrateda party calledthe Workers'party. In1977 therewasa warbetweenEthiopiaandSomalia,inwhichtheAmericanswerehelpingEthiopia andtheUSSR werehelpingSomalia.Mengistuwassocialist,sotheRussiansshiftedtheirallianceto EthiopiaandtheAmericansthenshiftedtoSomalia.

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Chapter 23, Problem 45E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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Calculate the heat of reaction for rhodochrosite is -