Sketch the 3 d orbitals. How would the 4 d orbitals differ from the 3 d orbitals?
Solution Step 1 For naming a binary non metal compound like the one given in the question the general rule is as follows 1) For names start with the element to the left side of the periodic table 2) Add -ide to the second element 3) Use Greek prefixes for number of atoms: mono, di, tetra, penta and so on… Applying this to the compound Cl O 2 7 The name starts with Chlorine and ends in oxide. Adding prefixes -di and-hepta for 1 and 7 the name will be dichlorine heptoxide. Step2 Cl27s formed from the elements Cl and O. The balanced equation will be 2Cl +7O 2Cl O 2(g) 2(g) 2 7(l) Step 3 The boiling point of 81 C is as expected as non metallic oxides usually have a low boiling point. The oxides of non-metals like Sulphur and Chlorine consists of individual molecules. The attractive force between these molecules will be vanderwalls force and thus will be weaker than ionic or covalent bond .Thus the energy required to break these bonds are lesser as evident from the lower boiling points of these molecules. However in Cl O c2o7ne uses all of its seven outer electrons in bonds with oxygen forming a bigger molecule and thus will have boiling point greater than the other non-metallic oxides. Step 4 - Cl27,ing a non-metallic oxide reacts with bases containing OH to give the corresponding salts. Cl27(l)aOH (aq) NaClO 4(aq) O2 (l) Step 5 The sum of oxidation states of all the atoms in a neutral compound is zero. Consider the molecule Cl O 2 7 Given oxidation number of O is -2 Let the oxidation state of Cl be X Then 2oxidation state of chlorine) +7(oxidation state of oxygen) =0 2(x) +7(-2) =0 2x=14 x=7 Thus the oxidation state of chlorine is +7 The atomic number of Cl is 17 and the electronic configuration of the neutral atom is1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 5 Thus the electronic configuration of Chlorine having +7 oxidation will be 1s 2s 2p which is the 2 2 6 configuration of Ne.