The distance from the sun to Earth is 1.496 x 108 km. How long does it take light to travel from the sun to Earth?
SolutionAn explanation to each of the statements are as given below(a)O is formed from O by the addition of electrons.When electrons are added to a parent atomthe number of electrons increases but the proton number remains the same.Thus the effectivenuclear pull experienced by the valence electrons decreases and the size of the ionincreases.Moreover the electron electron repulsion also results in an increase in size.(b)For ions having the same charge, the size increases as we come down the group.This isbecause principal quantum number ot the outermost shells increase resulting in an increase insize.S comes below O in the group and hence is larger in size.(c)S and K are isoelectronic speciesS(z=16) and K(z=19).The number of electrons and protons in the ions are as given below. Ion No of No of electrons protons 2- S 18 16 K + 18 19 2- 2-Since the nuclear charge is lesser in S when compared to the number of electrons S is largerthan K +(d)K and Ca are isoelectronic speciesCa(z=20) and K(z=19).The number of electrons and protons in the ions are as given below. Ion No of No of electrons protons + K 18 19 Ca 2+ 18 20 + 2+Since the nuclear charge is lesser in K it will have lesser effective pull when compared to Ca