For each of the systems in Exercise 3, determine the projection p of b onto R(A) and verify that b p is orthogonal to each of the column vectors of A.

Survey of Math: Week Two Sets Set: A list of elements separated by commas. Order of elements does not matter. Multiplicity does not matter o Ex: {a, a, a, b, c, c} is the same as {a, b, c} The elements are always contained in {} brackets. This is how you know if you are dealing with a set. Two sets are equal if they have the exact same elements in them. Ex: {a, b, c} = {c, b, a} Cardinality of sets: The number of distinct elements in that set. Ex: If set A= {a, 1, b, 2, c, 3}, then the cardinality of A is six, or │A│= 6, or n│A│= 6. Cardinality can be expressed as │x│= c or n│x│= c where x is the label for the set and c is the cardinality. The empty set: A