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(Note: In Problems, assume a number like 6.4 is | Ch 1 - 15P

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780130606204 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli ISBN: 9780130606204 3

Solution for problem 15P Chapter 1

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition

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Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780130606204 | Authors: Douglas C. Giancoli

Physics: Principles with Applications | 6th Edition

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Problem 15P

Problem 11P

(Note: In Problems, assume a number like 6.4 is accurate to ; and 950 is unless 950 is said to be “precisely” or “very nearly 950, in which case assume 950 )

What, roughly, is the percent uncertainty in the volume of a spherical beach ball whose radius is r = 2.86 0.09 m?

Step-by-Step Solution:
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World Geography – Africa Basic Facts About Africa  Africa resides in all 4 hemispheres o N/S/E/W  Lots of resources o Oil, diamonds, gold, iron, wood  Second biggest continent o Asia is 1st  Africa had 2 main regions: o Sub-Sahara Africa o Northern Africa (i.e. Saharan Africa)  800 million people in Sub-Sahara Africa o +2.3% increase per year  Africa is the highest in: o Birth rates (7.1 births per woman) o AIDS/HIV population (11%) o Infant Mortality (9%)  Africa is the lowest in: o Life Expectancy - 58 years o Literacy rate - 1 in 3 adults cannot read  Mostly Rural Population o Only 39% of the population lives in an urban area  40% of the population is under 15 yrs old Physical Geography  Africa contains 20% of the Earth's land  Spatial Dimensions o 4800 miles from Tunisia to South Africa (N-S) o 4500 miles from Senegal to Somalia (E-W)  Africa has a Great Lake system like North America o The Rift Valley  Major Lakes: o Lake Victoria (largest) o Lake Albert o Lake Turkana o Lake Tanganyika (longest, N-S) o Lake Nyasa  Pangaea o Africa was at the center o Biodiversity  Rift Valley o African Rift Valley is formed by plate separation  Divergent plate boundary o Extends from:  Mozambique in the south  To the Red Sea in the north o Africa's great lakes are in the Rift Valley Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa  South Africa o Majority of Wildlife Reserves o Large population with HIV/AIDS  East Africa  Equatorial Africa o Mostly rainforest  West Africa 3 Major Rivers in Africa  Nile River o Worlds longest river (4,260 miles long) o Flows South to North o Supports most the population  Congo River o Formally known as Zaire River o Worlds deepest river (720 ft deep) o Flows to the NW and then SW o Drains the Rainforest  Niger River o Flows N and the S o Headwater is only 150 miles from the Atlantic but it flows towards the desert African Population  Very Diverse, spread out, and located around water  Majority of African countries depend on Farming (60%)  Most people are long the equator of Africa  Farmers in Africa face many issues: o Climatic Variability (changing ITCZ)  Intertropical Convergence Zone: narrow zone near the equator where northern and southern air masses converge, typically producing low atmosphere pressure o Unstable economic policies  Land Tenure is huge in Africa o Land Tenure is a process where the community owns the farm land rather than individuals or corporations. C&T  The fertile land was taken over by Europeans during colonialism o Eventually over time land was passed down and taken over by private owners and families  Even after African states became independent Europeans were/are still in control o Neocolonial land-management is still in place ( Keep Africans poor)  Growing population in Africa has caused land overuse and soil issues o No crops rotation, few sustainable crops o Led to mass starvation in several regions  Top crops in Africa: Corn, millet, sorghum, yams, sugar cane, tea  Women mostly do the farming in Africa (75%) Colonial Africa  African Genesis o Continent in transition  West - habitats in and near culturally and economic area changing  Central and South - nomads  Invasions  Trade  European began settling in Africa early 1400s o Europe changed the landscape (the same as in the Americas) o Began on the coast, eventually moved inland  At first mostly trade with Africans (i.e. slavery), but eventually took over o Natural resources!! o Gold, diamonds, spices, ivory  Most lands were acquired by the British or French  Eventually led to the slave trade  Diaspora: a scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland o Europe o Arabs in the East  Colonial policies o Different powers followed different policies… o Great Britain:  "Indirect Rule" (Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe).  Indigenous power structure were left intact to some degree  Local rulers were made representatives of the crown o France:  "Assimilationist" (Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, etc).  Enforced a direct rule which propagated the French culture through language, laws, education, and dress (acculturation) o Portugal:  "Exploitation" (Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique).  First to enslave and colonize and one of the last to grant independence  Maintained rigid control; natural resources oriented  Decolonization o New governments were put into place with the departure of the colonial powers (1950s to 1970s)  Problems: o Ethnic tensions.  Boundaries were arbitrary; lots of cultural/ethnic overlap o Possibility of re-drawing boundaries was minimal:  Governments typically don't wish to give up territory  One-party states: o Prevalent in post-colonial Africa o Dictatorships o Repression of minorities (sometimes Genocides; Uganda, Rwanda) African Medical Geography & Health  Africa is a huge sector for studying disease, viruses, bacteria o Viruses and bacteria generally like warm/moist environments The African Union (AU)  Established in 2001  Contains 54 of the 55 states o Not Morocco  A few countries have been thrown out o Madagascar, Egypt, Central African Republic due to political instability  No central currency  Goals: o Stabilize the continent economically, politically, and militarily (#infrastructure) o Promote international cooperation o Eradicate poverty, disease o Improve education, human rights, standards of living Urbanization in Africa  Africa is the least urbanized realm in the world  Most countries lack political and economic infrastructure o Urban areas don't have the draw like cities in more developed countries (e.g., jobs, social amenities, etc.)  Formal vs. Informal sectors or urban areas o i.e., No regulated suburbs Malawi  16.3 million people o Independence from Britain in 1964 o Has a woman president Joyce Banda  Nearly entirely agriculture based economy o 40% of the economy is based on tobacco o Also sugarcane coffee and tea o Has a large water supply and has helped with it being landlocked  Infrastructure is well developed o 31 airports, >500 miles of railroads, 15,500 miles of roadways o Almost 4 million cell phone users to just 170,000 land-lines o Huge country for internet hosting Kenya  42.2 million people o Capitol is Nairobi o Mombasa is East Africa's busiest port  Capitalistic economy o Dependent on agriculture : tea, coffee, flowers  Currently a BRICK country  Issues in the 1980s, 1990s and even today o Fastest growing population on earth o Floods and droughts o AIDS/Terrorisms o Corruption by government officials Tanzania  48 million people live in Tanzania o The biggest in area and in population in the Eastern African o Tends to be congregated along the coast and the boarders  Contains Mt. Kilimanjaro, Serengeti National Park and Zanzibar island o The country is known for its huge tourism sector (but at the same time very poor population)  Attempted a socialistic economy after independence from the UK in 1961 o Tried to institute collective farming, but it failed and tourism suffered o 1990s it became democratic Ethiopia  91 million people; founded in (ca.) 980 BCE (very old) o Mostly farmers  Considered the birthplace of man-kind o Most flags in Africa are based upon Ethiopia because of this fact  Growing economy due to selling public lands to the private sector

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Chapter 1, Problem 15P is Solved
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Textbook: Physics: Principles with Applications
Edition: 6
Author: Douglas C. Giancoli
ISBN: 9780130606204

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(Note: In Problems, assume a number like 6.4 is | Ch 1 - 15P