(Note: In Problems, assume a number like 6.4 is accurate to ; and 950 is unless 950 is said to be “precisely” or “very nearly 950, in which case assume 950 )
What, roughly, is the percent uncertainty in the volume of a spherical beach ball whose radius is r = 2.86 0.09 m?
World Geography – Africa Basic Facts About Africa Africa resides in all 4 hemispheres o N/S/E/W Lots of resources o Oil, diamonds, gold, iron, wood Second biggest continent o Asia is 1st Africa had 2 main regions: o Sub-Sahara Africa o Northern Africa (i.e. Saharan Africa) 800 million people in Sub-Sahara Africa o +2.3% increase per year Africa is the highest in: o Birth rates (7.1 births per woman) o AIDS/HIV population (11%) o Infant Mortality (9%) Africa is the lowest in: o Life Expectancy - 58 years o Literacy rate - 1 in 3 adults cannot read Mostly Rural Population o Only 39% of the population lives in an urban area 40% of the population is under 15 yrs old Physical Geography Africa contains 20% of the Earth's land Spatial Dimensions o 4800 miles from Tunisia to South Africa (N-S) o 4500 miles from Senegal to Somalia (E-W) Africa has a Great Lake system like North America o The Rift Valley Major Lakes: o Lake Victoria (largest) o Lake Albert o Lake Turkana o Lake Tanganyika (longest, N-S) o Lake Nyasa Pangaea o Africa was at the center o Biodiversity Rift Valley o African Rift Valley is formed by plate separation Divergent plate boundary o Extends from: Mozambique in the south To the Red Sea in the north o Africa's great lakes are in the Rift Valley Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa South Africa o Majority of Wildlife Reserves o Large population with HIV/AIDS East Africa Equatorial Africa o Mostly rainforest West Africa 3 Major Rivers in Africa Nile River o Worlds longest river (4,260 miles long) o Flows South to North o Supports most the population Congo River o Formally known as Zaire River o Worlds deepest river (720 ft deep) o Flows to the NW and then SW o Drains the Rainforest Niger River o Flows N and the S o Headwater is only 150 miles from the Atlantic but it flows towards the desert African Population Very Diverse, spread out, and located around water Majority of African countries depend on Farming (60%) Most people are long the equator of Africa Farmers in Africa face many issues: o Climatic Variability (changing ITCZ) Intertropical Convergence Zone: narrow zone near the equator where northern and southern air masses converge, typically producing low atmosphere pressure o Unstable economic policies Land Tenure is huge in Africa o Land Tenure is a process where the community owns the farm land rather than individuals or corporations. C&T The fertile land was taken over by Europeans during colonialism o Eventually over time land was passed down and taken over by private owners and families Even after African states became independent Europeans were/are still in control o Neocolonial land-management is still in place ( Keep Africans poor) Growing population in Africa has caused land overuse and soil issues o No crops rotation, few sustainable crops o Led to mass starvation in several regions Top crops in Africa: Corn, millet, sorghum, yams, sugar cane, tea Women mostly do the farming in Africa (75%) Colonial Africa African Genesis o Continent in transition West - habitats in and near culturally and economic area changing Central and South - nomads Invasions Trade European began settling in Africa early 1400s o Europe changed the landscape (the same as in the Americas) o Began on the coast, eventually moved inland At first mostly trade with Africans (i.e. slavery), but eventually took over o Natural resources!! o Gold, diamonds, spices, ivory Most lands were acquired by the British or French Eventually led to the slave trade Diaspora: a scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland o Europe o Arabs in the East Colonial policies o Different powers followed different policies… o Great Britain: "Indirect Rule" (Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe). Indigenous power structure were left intact to some degree Local rulers were made representatives of the crown o France: "Assimilationist" (Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, etc). Enforced a direct rule which propagated the French culture through language, laws, education, and dress (acculturation) o Portugal: "Exploitation" (Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique). First to enslave and colonize and one of the last to grant independence Maintained rigid control; natural resources oriented Decolonization o New governments were put into place with the departure of the colonial powers (1950s to 1970s) Problems: o Ethnic tensions. Boundaries were arbitrary; lots of cultural/ethnic overlap o Possibility of re-drawing boundaries was minimal: Governments typically don't wish to give up territory One-party states: o Prevalent in post-colonial Africa o Dictatorships o Repression of minorities (sometimes Genocides; Uganda, Rwanda) African Medical Geography & Health Africa is a huge sector for studying disease, viruses, bacteria o Viruses and bacteria generally like warm/moist environments The African Union (AU) Established in 2001 Contains 54 of the 55 states o Not Morocco A few countries have been thrown out o Madagascar, Egypt, Central African Republic due to political instability No central currency Goals: o Stabilize the continent economically, politically, and militarily (#infrastructure) o Promote international cooperation o Eradicate poverty, disease o Improve education, human rights, standards of living Urbanization in Africa Africa is the least urbanized realm in the world Most countries lack political and economic infrastructure o Urban areas don't have the draw like cities in more developed countries (e.g., jobs, social amenities, etc.) Formal vs. Informal sectors or urban areas o i.e., No regulated suburbs Malawi 16.3 million people o Independence from Britain in 1964 o Has a woman president Joyce Banda Nearly entirely agriculture based economy o 40% of the economy is based on tobacco o Also sugarcane coffee and tea o Has a large water supply and has helped with it being landlocked Infrastructure is well developed o 31 airports, >500 miles of railroads, 15,500 miles of roadways o Almost 4 million cell phone users to just 170,000 land-lines o Huge country for internet hosting Kenya 42.2 million people o Capitol is Nairobi o Mombasa is East Africa's busiest port Capitalistic economy o Dependent on agriculture : tea, coffee, flowers Currently a BRICK country Issues in the 1980s, 1990s and even today o Fastest growing population on earth o Floods and droughts o AIDS/Terrorisms o Corruption by government officials Tanzania 48 million people live in Tanzania o The biggest in area and in population in the Eastern African o Tends to be congregated along the coast and the boarders Contains Mt. Kilimanjaro, Serengeti National Park and Zanzibar island o The country is known for its huge tourism sector (but at the same time very poor population) Attempted a socialistic economy after independence from the UK in 1961 o Tried to institute collective farming, but it failed and tourism suffered o 1990s it became democratic Ethiopia 91 million people; founded in (ca.) 980 BCE (very old) o Mostly farmers Considered the birthplace of man-kind o Most flags in Africa are based upon Ethiopia because of this fact Growing economy due to selling public lands to the private sector