Derive Equation (2.32) for the case where the sourceis fi xed but the receiver approaches it with velocity v.

• pH and Acid/Base Balance • What is pH – Can be thought of as the power of Hydrogen concentration in a solution – Mathematical definition- negative logarithmic value of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, or • pH = -log [H+] – Negative Logarithm- a negative scale based on ten • As the hydrogen ion concentration goes up, the scale goes down • Example: 1 is ten times more that 2 » 3 is a hundred time less than 1 (10 x 10 = 100) • What is the pH for an Acid Neutral A base • pH of Common Products • Physiological pH • Normal body pH is between 7.35-7.45 or ~ 7.4 • So, normal body pH is slightly basic • What pH range is compatible with life – pH 6.8 to pH 8 • Acid Disassociation Constant • Given a weak acid “HA”, its disassociation in water is subject to the following equilibrium : + – – HA + H+O ↔ H–O + A or HA ↔ H + A • Ka is the disassociation constant for acid – The stronger the acid, the higher the Ka • Ka=1, almost completely disassociated • Ka=0, almost completely associated pKa- the acidity constant is often represented by the inverse of its logarithm • Types of acids 1. Volatile - carbonic acid (can leave solution and enter the atmosphere) 2. Fixed acids - sulfuric and phosphoric (doesn'