A good rule of thumb is to use relativistic equationswhenever the kinetic energies determined classicallyand relativistically differ by more than 1%. Find thespeeds when this occurs for (a) electrons and (b)protons.
Notes 10/12 Extrasolar Planets (detection) Indirect methods: o Doppler wobble technique— Two rules of Doppler shifting: 1. (a) Objects moving toward you appear “blueshifted” (shorter waves) (b) Objects moving away appear “redshifted” (longer waves) 2. The amount of shift is proportional to radial velocity o Radial meaning along line of sight; parallel to radius What do we deduce 1. Amplitude of wobble (V orbitor star/planet) if system is edge-on 2. How long it takes to repeat itself (period) Perio d What we Tim measur e Vradial The closer you are orbiting to the sun, the faster you go Period equation: 2Πr orbit(V orbit (T) Determines how far away a star is and how massive Almost all exoplanets found using Doppler wobble technique are very massive (Jupiter or larger) and VERY close to parent star (possible 5 day orbit) Opposite of our planetary hypothesis Called hot Jupiters Do we throw out our theory o NO o Our sample is biased/not representative o