The Large Hadron Collider at Europes CERN facilityis designed to produce 7.0 TeV (that is, 7.0 1012 eV)protons. Calculate the speed, momentum, and totalenergy of the protons.

Goals • To calculate the speed of a wave on a string • To calculate the energy, power and intensity of mechanical waves • To understand the interference of mechanical waves • To analyze standing waves on a string • To describe sound waves in terms of particle displacements or pressure variations • To calculate the speed of sound in different materials • To calculate sound intensity Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. The speed of a wave on a string • The result for wave speed on a string is m-is string mass density = Restoring force returning the system to equilibrium = Inertia resisting the return to equilibrium Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Wave intensity • The intensity of a wave is the average power it carries per unit area. • If the waves spread out uniformly in all directions and no energy is absorbed, the intensity I at any distance r from a wave source is inversely proportional to r : I 1/r .2 • intensity I (Amplitude) 2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Principle of Superposition y(x,t)= y (x,t)+ y (x,t) 1 2 Interference- overlapping of waves in the same region of medium (space) combined 2A waveform wave 1 A A wave 2 Constructive Destructive interference interference