Quasars are among the most distant objects in theuniverse and are moving away from us at very highspeeds, as discussed in Chapter 16. Astrophysicists usethe redshift parameter z to determine the redshift ofsuch rapidly moving objects. The parameter z is determinedby observing a wavelength of a known spectralline of wavelength source on Earth; z /source ( source)/source. Find the speed of two quasarshaving z values of 1.9 and 4.9.

Chapter4:Two-DimensionalKinematics Ittakes1numbertospecifyapositionona1-dimensionalline,2numbers fora2-dimensionalspace,and3numbersfora3-dimensionalspace. Tocreateacoordinatesystemin2-dimensionstakeapointattheoriginand definetwoperpendiculardirectionstoorientthesystem. *curlynotaionwithmagnitudeanddirectionasthetwonumber s;itispolar planesystem Paraenthesisnotationwithtwonumbersascompoents;Cartesian coordinates. Anythingmovingalongacurvedpathhasaninstantaneousvelocityvector whosedirectionistangenttothecurve,ateachpoint ofthepath,andwhose magnitufeistheinstantaneousspeedoftheobjectalongthepath. Accelerationistherateofchangeofvelocity,notspeed. -accelerationincludeschangeindirection justbecausesomethingaccelerateddoesnotmeanitspeedsup. Accelerationisinthesamedirectionasthevelocity. -objectspeedsupgoinginthesamedirection Accelerationhasaforwardcomponentandaperpendicularcomponent -velocityvectorgetslongerandturnsindirectionofperpendicular compoment Acceleartionisperpendiculartothevelocity -objectturnsbutspeedisnotchanged Accelerationhasabackwardcomponentandperpendicularcomponent -velocityvectorgetsshortandturns Accelerationisintheoppositediectionasthevelocity -objectslowsdowngoinginthesamedirection *smallperpendicularaccelerationproducessmallchangeindirection,but changeinthevelocitymagnitudeistiny,essentiallnegliagable. Projectilemot