The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use ofa rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Fig. P1.87.In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinderis rotated with an angular velocity, . The torque required todevelop is measured and the viscosity is calculated from thesetwo measurements. (a) Develop an equation relating , , , , Ro,and Ri. Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution inthe gap is linear. (b) The following torque-angular velocity datawere obtained with a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type discussedin part (a).Torque (ft lb) 13.1 26.0 39.5 52.7 64.9 78.6Angular velocity (rads) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0For this viscometer Ro = 2.50 in., Ri = 2.45 in., and = 5.00 in.Make use of these data and a standard curve-fitting program todetermine the viscosity of the liquid contained in the viscometer.
Cell Bio E25-4 20-2 o Cancer is bad becausse metastasis o Cells in cell division o Digestive organs and respiratory are the most E25-5 o Most important characteristic of cancer cells- proliferate and spread everywhere 20-3 o Benign versus malignant Benign are confined in one place and malignant bursts the cells and goes verywhere E25-6 o Carcinomas- 80% of all cancers 20-4 o Growth of a typical tumor of the breast o Most cancers derive from a single abnormal cell (somatic mutations) o Tumor needs to be 10 mm or 1 cm in diameter 20-5 o Leukemia- translocation btwn chromosome 9 & 22 20-6 o Cancer incidience as a function of age o Cancer is typically a disease of old age o Graph o Not infectious 20-7 o Graph of smoking and lung cancer 20-8 o Uterince cervix 20-9 o Takes more than a single mutation to turn a normal cell in to a cancer cell E25-7 E25-8 20-13 o Increased cell division and decreased apoptosis can contribute to tumorigenesis 20-11 o Loss on contact inhibition by cancel cells in cell culture o Cancer cells can ofter proliferate indefinitely o Telomeres get shorter after every replication o Replicative synases E25-9 20-10