We will see in Chapter 8 that the pressure drop in fully developedpipe flow is sometimes computed with the aid of a frictionfactor, defined byf = p12V2Dwhere V is the average velocity, D is the pipe diameter, and is thelength of pipe over which p occurs. For laminar fully developedflow, f can be evaluated fromf = CRewhere C is a constant and Re is the Reynolds number, given byRe = VD/. Find the constant C for flow in a circular tube.
Water & Minerals o Minerals account for 6% of our body composition A. Intro Water o Most abundant & critical body substance Minerals o Inorganic elements o An adult male is approximately 62% water, 17% protein, 15% fat, and 6% minerals and glycogen B. Functions of water Solvent Body temperature control Lubrication/ protection Acid- base balance Transport o Nutrient delivery Blood o Waste removal Blood/urine C. Body Water Compartments Intracellular fluid Cells – 67% Extracellular fluid o Intravascular fluid Bloodstream- 25% o Interstitial fluid Between cells 8% D. Water Sources Beverages o 75-80% of total intake o Drinking water o Other beverages Food o 20-25% of total intake Metabolic water o 250-350 ml/day E. Water Output Urine o Major route for excretion; 1-2 L/day Sweat Insensible losses o Skin o Lungs GI tract o Lowest amount o 100-200 ml/day F. Water Balance Electrolytes o Sodium, potassium, chloride o Osmotic pressure Electrolytes attract water Regulation off Water Intake o Thirst mechanism (sensation) Stimuli Increase in plasma osmolarity