As shown in Fig. P7.63, a noisemaker B is towed behind aminesweeper A to set off enemy acoustic mines such as at C. Thedrag force of the noisemaker is to be studied in a water tunnel at a14 scale model (model the size of the prototype). The drag force is assumed to be a function of the speed of the ship, the densityand viscosity of the fluid, and the diameter of the noisemaker.(a) If the prototype towing speed is 3 m/s, determine the watervelocity in the tunnel for the model tests. (b) If the model testsof part (a) produced a model drag of 900 N, determine the dragexpected on the prototype.
Chapter 47: Animal Development 47.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific changes in cell shape, position, and survival Introduction ● Morphogenesis the cellular and tissuebased process by which the animal body takes shape ● During gastrulation, set of cells at or near surface of the blastula move to interior location, establishing cell layers, and forming primitive digestive tube ● Organogenesis the formation of organs Gastrulation Introduction ● Gastrulation reorganization of hollow blastula into twolayered or threelayered embryo called a gastrula ○ Germ layers cell layers produced ■ Ectoderm forms outer layer ■ Endoderm lines the embryonic digestive compartment or tract ■ Mesoderm forms between ectoderm and endoderm ● Cnidarians and other radially symmetrical animals only have ectoderm and endoderm and are called diploblasts ● Triploblasts have all three germ layers Gastrulation in Sea Urchins ● Gastrulation involves migration and invagination (the infolding of a sheet of cells into the embryo) ○ Extensive rearrangement forms deeper, narrower, blindended tube called archenteron (future digestive tube) ■ Open end will become the anus, called the blastopore, other forms mouth ● Deuterostomes mouth develops from second opening of the embryo ● Protostomes mouth develops from the first opening formed during gastrulation