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Solutions for Chapter 21: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3rd Edition

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Full solutions for Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

ISBN: 9780321809247

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Solutions for Chapter 21

Solutions for Chapter 21
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3. Chapter 21 includes 172 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 172 problems in chapter 21 have been answered, more than 1007890 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • absorption spectrum

    In IR spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS spectroscopy, a plot that measures the percent transmittance or absorption as a function of frequency.

  • acidic oxide (acidic anhydride)

    An oxide that either reacts with a base to form a salt or with water to form an acid. (Section 22.5)

  • acylium ion

    The resonancestabilized, cationic intermediate of a Friedel-Crafts acylation, formed by treating an acyl halide with aluminum trichloride.

  • Aldehyde

    A compound containing a !CHO group

  • alkynes.

    Hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. They have the general formula CnH2n22, where n 5 2,3, . . . . (24.2)

  • antibonding molecular orbital.

    A molecular orbital that is of higher energy and lower stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)

  • Aufbau principle

    A rule that determines the order in which orbitals are filled by electrons. Specifically, the lowest energy orbital is filled first.

  • calorimeter

    An apparatus that measures the heat released or absorbed in a chemical or physical process. (Section 5.5)

  • colloids (colloidal dispersions)

    Mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium. (Section 13.6)

  • Crystalline domain

    An ordered crystalline region in the solid state of a polymer. Also called a crystallite.

  • E2

    A bimolecular eliminationreaction.eclipsed conformation (Sect. 4.7): A conformationin which groups are eclipsing each other in aNewman projection.

  • Gibbs free energy

    A thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy, in the form G = H - TS. For a change occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy is ?G = ?H - T?S. (Section 19.5)

  • Meso compound

    An achiral compound possessing two or more chiral centers that also has chiral isomers

  • metalloids

    Elements that lie along the diagonal line separating the metals from the nonmetals in the periodic table; the properties of metalloids are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals. (Section 2.5)

  • overlap

    The extent to which atomic orbitals on different atoms share the same region of space. When the overlap between two orbitals is large, a strong bond may be formed. (Section 9.4)

  • oxidation

    A reaction in which one compound undergoes an increase in oxidation state.

  • Oxidation

    The loss of electrons. Alternatively, either the loss of hydrogens, the gain of oxygens, or both.

  • reducing sugar

    A carbohydrate that is oxidized upon treatment with Tollens’ reagent, Fehling’s reagent, or Benedict’s reagent.

  • valence bond theory

    A theory that treats a bond as the sharing of electrons that are associated with individual atoms, rather than being associated with the entire molecule.

  • zwitterion

    A net neutral compound that exhibits charge separation. Amino acids exist as zwitterions at physiological pH.