 15.1: What causes heartburn? What are some possible ways to alleviate hea...
 15.2: What are the general physical and chemical properties of acids? Of ...
 15.3: What is a carboxylic acid? Give an example.
 15.4: What is the Arrhenius definition of an acid? Of a base?
 15.5: What is a hydronium ion? Does H+ exist in solution by itself?
 15.6: What is the BrnstedLowry definition of an acid? Of a base?
 15.7: Why is there more than one definition of acidbase behavior? Which d...
 15.8: Describe amphoteric behavior and give an example.
 15.9: What is a conjugate acidbase pair? Provide an example.
 15.10: Explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid and li...
 15.11: What are diprotic and triprotic acids? List an example of each.
 15.12: Define the acid ionization constant and explain its significance.
 15.13: Write an equation for the autoionization of water and an expression...
 15.14: What happens to the [OH] of a solution when the [H3O+] is increase...
 15.15: Define pH. What pH range is considered acidic? Basic? Neutral?
 15.16: Define pOH. What pOH range is considered acidic? Basic? Neutral?
 15.17: In most solutions containing a strong or weak acid, the autoionizat...
 15.18: When calculating [H3O+] for weak acid solutions, we can often use t...
 15.19: What is the percent ionization of an acid? Explain what happens to ...
 15.20: In calculating [H3O+] for a mixture of a strong acid and weak acid,...
 15.21: Write a generic equation showing how a weak base ionizes water.
 15.22: How can you determine if an anion will act as a weak base? Write a ...
 15.23: What is the relationship between the acid ionization constant for a...
 15.24: What kinds of cations act as weak acids? List some examples.
 15.25: When calculating the [H3O+] for a polyprotic acid, the second ioniz...
 15.26: For a weak diprotic acid H2X, what is the relationship between [X2...
 15.27: For a binary acid, HiY, which factors affect the relative ease with...
 15.28: Which factors affect the relative acidity of an oxyacid?
 15.29: What is the Lewis definition of an acid? Of a base?
 15.30: What is a general characteristic of a Lewis acid? Of a Lewis base?
 15.31: What is acid rain? What causes it and where is the problem the grea...
 15.32: What are the main detrimental effects of acid rain? What is being d...
 15.33: Identify each substance as an acid or a base and write a chemical e...
 15.34: Identify each substance as an acid or a base and write a chemical e...
 15.35: In each reaction, identify the BrnstedLowry acid, the Brnsted Lowry...
 15.36: In each reaction, identify the BrnstedLowry acid, the BrnstedLowry ...
 15.37: Write the formula for the conjugate base of each acid. a. HCl b. H2...
 15.38: Write the formula for the conjugate acid of each base. a. NH3 b. Cl...
 15.39: Both H2O and H2PO4  are amphoteric. Write an equation to show how ...
 15.40: Both HCO3  and HS are amphoteric. Write an equation to show how e...
 15.41: Classify each acid as strong or weak. If the acid is weak, write an...
 15.42: Classify each acid as strong or weak. If the acid is weak, write an...
 15.43: The three diagrams represent three different solutions of the binar...
 15.44: Rank the solutions in order of decreasing [H3O+]: 0.10 M HCl; 0.10 ...
 15.45: Pick the stronger base from each pair. a. F or Cl b. NO2  or NO3...
 15.46: Pick the stronger base from each pair. a. ClO4  or ClO2  b. Cl o...
 15.47: Calculate [OH] in each aqueous solution at 25 C, and classify the ...
 15.48: Calculate [H3O+] in each aqueous solution at 25 C, and classify eac...
 15.49: Calculate the pH and pOH of each solution. a. [H3O+] = 1.7 * 108 M...
 15.50: Calculate [H3O+] and [OH] for each solution. a. pH = 8.55 b. pH = ...
 15.51: Complete the table. (All solutions are at 25 C. )
 15.52: Complete the table. (All solutions are at 25 C. )
 15.53: Like all equilibrium constants, the value of Kw depends on temperat...
 15.54: The value of Kw increases with increasing temperature. Is the autoi...
 15.55: Calculate the pH of each acid solution. Explain how the resulting p...
 15.56: Determine the concentration of H 3 O + to the correct number of sig...
 15.57: Determine the concentration of H 3 O + to the correct number of sig...
 15.58: Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.048 M HI b. 0.0895 M HClO4 ...
 15.59: What mass of HI should be present in 0.250 L of solution to obtain ...
 15.60: What mass of HClO4 should be present in 0.500 L of solution to obta...
 15.61: What is the pH of a solution in which 224 mL of HCl( g ), measured ...
 15.62: What volume of a concentrated HCl solution, which is 36.0% HCl by m...
 15.63: Determine the [H3O+] and pH of a 0.100 M solution of benzoic acid.
 15.64: Determine the [H3O+] and pH of a 0.200 M solution of formic acid.
 15.65: Determine the pH of an HNO2 solution of each concentration. In whic...
 15.66: Determine the pH of an HF solution of each concentration. In which ...
 15.67: If 15.0 mL of glacial acetic acid (pure HC2H3O2) is diluted to 1.50...
 15.68: Calculate the pH of a formic acid solution that contains 1.35% form...
 15.69: A 0.185 M solution of a weak acid (HA) has a pH of 2.95. Calculate ...
 15.70: A 0.115 M solution of a weak acid (HA) has a pH of 3.29. Calculate ...
 15.71: Determine the percent ionization of a 0.125 M HCN solution.
 15.72: Determine the percent ionization of a 0.225 M solution of benzoic a...
 15.73: Calculate the percent ionization of an acetic acid solution having ...
 15.74: Calculate the percent ionization of a formic acid solution having t...
 15.75: A 0.148 M solution of a monoprotic acid has a percent ionization of...
 15.76: A 0.085 M solution of a monoprotic acid has a percent ionization of...
 15.77: Find the pH and percent ionization of each HF solution. a. 0.250 M ...
 15.78: Find the pH and percent ionization of a 0.100 M solution of a weak ...
 15.79: Find the pH of each mixture of acids. a. 0.115 M in HBr and 0.125 M...
 15.80: Find the pH of each mixture of acids. a. 0.075 M in HNO3 and 0.175 ...
 15.81: For each strong base solution, determine [OH], [H3O+], pH, and pOH...
 15.82: For each strong base solution, determine [OH], [H3O+], pH, and pOH...
 15.83: Determine the pH of a solution that is 3.85% KOH by mass. Assume th...
 15.84: Determine the pH of a solution that is 1.55% NaOH by mass. Assume t...
 15.85: What volume of 0.855 M KOH solution is required to make 3.55 L of a...
 15.86: What volume of a 15.0% by mass NaOH solution, which has a density o...
 15.87: Write equations showing how each weak base ionizes water to form OH...
 15.88: Write equations showing how each weak base ionizes water to form OH...
 15.89: Determine the [OH], pH, and pOH of a 0.15 M ammonia solution.
 15.90: Determine the [OH], pH, and pOH of a solution that is 0.125 M in C...
 15.91: Caffeine ( C8H10N4O2 ) is a weak base with a p Kb of 10.4. Calculat...
 15.92: Amphetamine ( C9H13N ) is a weak base with a pKb of 4.2. Calculate ...
 15.93: Morphine is a weak base. A 0.150 M solution of morphine has a pH of...
 15.94: A 0.135 M solution of a weak base has a pH of 11.23. Determine Kb f...
 15.95: Determine if each anion acts as a weak base in solution. For those ...
 15.96: Determine whether each anion is basic or neutral. For those anions ...
 15.97: Determine the [OH] and pH of a solution that is 0.140 M in F
 15.98: Determine the [OH] and pH of a solution that is 0.250 M in HCO3
 15.99: Determine whether each cation is acidic or pHneutral. For those ca...
 15.100: Determine whether each cation is acidic or pHneutral. For those ca...
 15.101: Determine if each salt will form a solution that is acidic, basic, ...
 15.102: Determine if each salt will form a solution that is acidic, basic, ...
 15.103: Arrange the solutions in order of increasing acidity. NaCl, NH4Cl, ...
 15.104: Arrange the solutions in order of increasing basicity. CH3NH3Br, KO...
 15.105: Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.10 M NH4Cl b. 0.10 M NaC2H3...
 15.106: Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.20 M KCHO2 b. 0.20 M CH3NH3...
 15.107: Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.15 M KF solution.
 15.108: Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.225 M C6H5NH3Cl s...
 15.109: Write chemical equations and corresponding equilibrium expressions ...
 15.110: Write chemical equations and corresponding equilibrium expressions ...
 15.111: Calculate the [H3O+] and pH of each polyprotic acid solution. a. 0....
 15.112: Calculate the [H3O+] and pH of each polyprotic acid solution. a. 0....
 15.113: Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.500 M solution of...
 15.114: Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.155 M solution of...
 15.115: Calculate the [H3O+] and pH of each H2SO4 solution. At approximatel...
 15.116: Consider a 0.10 M solution of a weak polyprotic acid ( H2A ) with t...
 15.117: Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from eac...
 15.118: Based on molecular structure, arrange the binary compounds in order...
 15.119: Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from eac...
 15.120: Based on molecular structure, arrange the oxyacids in order of incr...
 15.121: Which is a stronger base, S2 or Se2? Explain.
 15.122: Which is a stronger base, PO4 3 or AsO4 3? Explain.
 15.123: Classify each species as either a Lewis acid or a Lewis base. a. Fe...
 15.124: Classify each species as either a Lewis acid or a Lewis base. a. Be...
 15.125: Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base from among the reactants in ...
 15.126: Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base from among the reactants in ...
 15.127: Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured aci...
 15.128: Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured bas...
 15.129: The binding of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood involves the equil...
 15.130: Carbon dioxide dissolves in water according to the equations: CO2(g...
 15.131: People often take milk of magnesia to reduce the discomfort associa...
 15.132: Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain can be neutralized by l...
 15.133: Acid rain over the Great Lakes has a pH of about 4.5. Calculate the...
 15.134: White wines tend to be more acidic than red wines. Find the [H3O+] ...
 15.135: Common aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid, which has the structure sho...
 15.136: The AIDS drug zalcitabine (also known as ddC) is a weak base with t...
 15.137: Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.0100 M HClO4 b. 0.115 M HCl...
 15.138: Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.0650 M HNO3 b. 0.150 M HNO2...
 15.139: Determine the pH of each twocomponent solution. a. 0.0550 M in HI ...
 15.140: Determine the pH of each twocomponent solution. a. 0.050 M KOH and...
 15.141: Write net ionic equations for the reactions that take place when aq...
 15.142: Morphine has the formula C17H19NO3. It is a base and accepts one pr...
 15.143: The pH of a 1.00 M solution of urea, a weak organic base, is 7.050....
 15.144: A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.10 mol of acetic acid and 0....
 15.145: Lactic acid is a weak acid found in milk. Its calcium salt is a sou...
 15.146: A solution of 0.23 mol of the chloride salt of protonated quinine (...
 15.147: A student mistakenly calculates the pH of a 1.0 * 107 M HI solutio...
 15.148: When 2.55 g of an unknown weak acid (HA) with a molar mass of 85.0 ...
 15.149: Calculate the pH of a solution that is 0.00115 M in HCl and 0.0100 ...
 15.150: To what volume should you dilute 1 L of a solution of a weak acid H...
 15.151: HA, a weak acid, with Ka = 1.0 * 108 , also forms the ion HA2 . T...
 15.152: Basicity in the gas phase can be defined as the proton affinity of ...
 15.153: Calculate the pH of a solution prepared from 0.200 mol of NH 4 CN a...
 15.154: To 1.0 L of a 0.30 M solution of HClO 2 is added 0.20 mol of NaF. C...
 15.155: A mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 has a mass of 82.2 g. It is dissolve...
 15.156: A mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 has a mass of 82.2 g. It is dissolve...
 15.157: Without doing any calculations, determine which solution in each pa...
 15.158: Without doing any calculations, determine which solution in each pa...
 15.159: Rank the acids in order of increasing acid strength. CH3COOH CH2ClC...
Solutions for Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
Full solutions for Chemistry: A Molecular Approach  3rd Edition
ISBN: 9780321809247
Solutions for Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
Get Full SolutionsChemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 159 problems in chapter 15: Acids and Bases have been answered, more than 463480 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 15: Acids and Bases includes 159 full stepbystep solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3.

alkylthio group
An SR group.

allylic bromination
A radical reaction that achieves installation of a bromine atom at an allylic position.

alpha (a) amino acid
A compound containing a carboxylic acid group (COOH) as well as an amino group (NH2), both of which are attached to the same carbon atom.

Aryl group (Ar )
A group derived from an arene by removal of an H.

band structure
The electronic structure of a solid, defining the allowed ranges of energy for electrons in a solid. (Section 12.7)

changes of state
Transformations of matter from one state to a different one, for example, from a gas to a liquid. (Section 1.3)

coordination number
The number of adjacent atoms to which an atom is directly bonded. In a complex the coordination number of the metal ion is the number of donor atoms to which it is bonded. (Sections 12.37 and 24.2)

disrotatory
In electrocyclicreactions, a type of rotation in which the orbitalsbeing used to form the new s bond must rotate in opposite directions (one rotates clockwise while the other rotates counterclockwise).

elementary reaction
A process in a chemical reaction that occurs in a single step. An overall chemical reaction consists of one or more elementary reactions or steps. (Section 14.6)

energylevel diagram
A diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derived. Also called a molecularorbital diagram. (Section 9.7)

furanose
A fivemembered cyclic hemiacetal form of a carbohydrate.

Markovnikov addition
In additionreactions, the observation that the hydrogen atomis generally placed at the vinylic position alreadybearing the larger number of hydrogen atoms.

normal melting point
The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)

peroxides
Compounds with the general structure R!O!O!R.

Polyester
A polymer in which each monomer unit is joined to the next by an ester bond, as, for example, poly(ethylene terephthalate).

polysaccharides
Polymers made up of repeating monosaccharide units linked together by glycoside bonds.

pressureâ€“volume (PV) work
Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)

ProRhydrogen
Replacing this hydrogen by deuterium gives a chiral center with an R confi guration

quaternary structure
The structure that arises when a protein consists of two or more folded polypeptide chains that aggregate to form one protein complex.

solid
Matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume. (Section 1.2)