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Solutions for Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

ISBN9780321809247

Solutions for Chapter 15: Acids and Bases

Solutions for Chapter 15

15.15.109) Most of the hydrides of Group 1A and Group 2A metals are ionic (the exceptions are BeH2 and MgH2, which are covalent ...

15.15.62) Look up the contents of a Tums tablet. How many tablets are needed to increase the pH of the gastric juice in a perso...

15.15.63) Phosphorous acid, H3PO3(aq), is a diprotic acid with Ka1 5 3 3 1022 . (a) After examining the Ka values in Table 15.5...

15.15.11) Calculate the pH of a 0.20 M ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) solution.

15.15.64) Chicken egg shells are composed primarily of calcium carbonate, CaCO3. In a classic demonstration carried out in chem...

15.15.111) Novocaine, used as a local anesthetic by dentists, is a weak base (Kb 5 8.91 3 1026 ). What is the ratio of the conce...

15.15.112) Which of the following is the stronger base: NF3 or NH3? (Hint: F is more electronegative than H.)

15.15.113) Which of the following is a stronger base: NH3 or PH3? (Hint: The NH bond is stronger than the PH bond.)

15.15.114) The ion product of D2O is 1.35 3 10215 at 25C. (a) Calculate pD where pD 5 2log [D1]. (b) For what values of pD will ...

15.15.115) Give an example of (a) a weak acid that contains oxygen atoms, (b) a weak acid that does not contain oxygen atoms, (c...

15.15.65) What are the concentrations of HSO4 2, SO4 22, and H1 in a 0.20 M KHSO4 solution?

15.15.66) Calculate the concentrations of H1, HCO3 2, and CO3 22 in a 0.025 M H2CO3 solution.

15.15.116) What is the pH of 250.0 mL of an aqueous solution containing 0.616 g of the strong acid trifluoromethane sulfonic aci...

15.15.67) List four factors that affect the strength of an acid.

15.15.117) (a) Use VSEPR to predict the geometry of the hydronium ion, H3O1. (b) The O atom in H2O has two lone pairs and in pri...

15.1E) What causes heartburn? What are some possible ways to alleviate heartburn?

15.1SAQ) ?Identify the conjugate base in the reaction shown here: a) HClO2 b) H2O c) H3O+ d) ClO2-

15.2E) What are the general physical and chemical properties of acids? Of bases?

15.15.16) Calculate the concentration of H1 ions in a 0.62 M NaOH solution

15.15.118) HF is a weak acid, but its strength increases with concentration. Explain. (Hint: F2 reacts with HF to form HF2 2. Th...

15.2SAQ) ?Which pair is a Brønsted–Lowry conjugate acid–base pair?

15.3E) What is a carboxylic add? Give an example.

15.15.68) How does the strength of an oxoacid depend on the electronegativity and oxidation number of the central atom?

15.3SAQ) ?Consider the given acid ionization constants. Identify the strongest conjugate base. a) NO2-( aq ) b) CHO2-( aq ) c)...

15.4E) What is the Arrhenius definition of an acid? Of a base?

15.15.69) Predict the acid strengths of the following compounds: H2O, H2S, and H2Se.

15.4SAQ) ?What is the OH - concentration in an aqueous solution at 25 °C in which [H3O+] = 1.9 x 10-9 M? a) 1.9 x 10-9 M b) 5....

15.5E) ?What is a hydronium ion? Does H+ exist in solution by itself?

15.15.119) When chlorine reacts with water, the resulting solution is weakly acidic and reacts with AgNO3 to give a white precip...

15.5SAQ) ?An \(HNO_3 (aq)\) solution has a pH of 1.75. What is the molar concentration of the \(HNO_3 (aq)\) solution?a) 1.75 ...

15.15.17) Calculate the pH of each of the following solutions: (a) 0.0010 M HCl, (b) 0.76 M KOH.

15.6E) What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid? Of a base?

15.15.12) When the concentration of a strong acid is not substantially higher than 1.0 3 1027 M, the ionization of water must b...

15.7E) ?Why is there more than one definition of acid-base behavior? Which definition is the right one?

15.6SAQ) ?Find the pH of a 0.350 M aqueous benzoic acid solution. For benzoic acid, Ka = 6.5 x 10-5. a) 4.64 b) 4.19 c) 2.32 d...

15.15.18) Calculate the pH of each of the following solutions: (a) 2.8 3 1024 M Ba(OH)2, (b) 5.2 3 1024 M HNO3.

15.7SAQ) ?Find the pH of a 0.155 M HClO2(aq) solution. For HClO2, Ka = 0.011. a) 0.92 b) 1.44 c) 1.39 d) 0.69

15.8E) Describe amphoteric behavior and give an example.

15.8SAQ) ?Calculate the percent ionization of 1.45 M aqueous acetic acid solution. For acetic acid, Ka = 1.8 x 10-5. a) 0.35% ...

15.15.7) Compare the strengths of the following pairs of acids: (a) H2SO4 and H2SeO4, (b) H3PO4 and H3AsO4.

15.9E) What is a conjugate acid-base pair? Provide an example.

15.9SAQ) ?Consider two aqueous solutions of nitrous acid (HNO2). Solution A has a concentration of [HNO2] = 0.55 M and solutio...

15.15.121) Calculate the pH of a 2.00 M NH4CN solution

15.10E) Explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid and list one example of each.

15.15.19) Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in mol/L for solutions with the following pH values: (a) 2.42, (b) 11.21, (c...

15.10SAQ) ?Find the [OH-] in a 0.200 M solution of ethylamine (C2H5NH2). For ethylamine, Kb = 5.6 x 10-4. a) 11.52 M b) 2.48 M ...

15.11E) ?What are diprotic and triprotic acids? List an example of each.

15.15.71) Which of the following is the stronger acid: CH2ClCOOH or CHCl2COOH? Explain your choice.

15.15.122) Calculate the concentrations of all species in a 0.100 M H3PO4 solution.

15.11SAQ) ?Which ion will form a basic solution when dissolved in water? a) Br-b) NO3- c) HSO4- d) SO32-

15.12E) Define the acid ionization constant and explain its significance.

15.13E) ?Write an equation for the autoionization of water and an expression for the ion product constant for water (Kw). Wha...

15.15.72) Consider the following compounds: OOOH CH3OOOH phenol methanol Experimentally, phenol is found to be a stronger acid ...

15.12SAQ) ?Which compound will form an acidic solution when dissolved in water? a) NH4Cl b) NaCl c) KNO2d) Ca(NO3)2

15.15.2) Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in mol/L for each of the following solutions: (a) a solution whose pH is 5.2...

15.13SAQ) ?Find the pH of 0.175 M NaCN solution. For HCN, Ka = 4.9 x 10-10. a) 5.03 b) 11.28 c) 2.31 d) 8.97

15.14E) ?What happens to the [OH-] of a solution when the [H3O+] is increased? Decreased?

15.15.123) Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base that lead to the formation of the following species: (a) AlCl2 4 , (b) Cd(CN)2...

15.14SAQ) ?What is the concentration of X2- in a 0.150 M solution of the diprotic acid H2X? For H2X, Ka1 = 4.5 x 10-6 and Ka2 =...

15.15E) Define pH. What pH range is considered acidic? Basic? Neutral?

15.15.21) Complete the following table for a solution: pH [H1] Solution is ,7 ,1.0 3 1027 M Neutral

15.15SAQ) ?Which acid has the largest Ka : HClO2(aq), HBrO2(aq), or HIO2(aq)? a) HClO2(aq) b) HBrO2(aq) c) HIO2(aq) d) All thre...

15.16E) Define pOH. What pOH range is considered acidic? Basic? Neutral?

15.15.73) Define salt hydrolysis. Categorize salts according to how they affect the pH of a solution.

15.15.124) Very concentrated NaOH solutions should not be stored in Pyrex glassware. Why? (Hint: See Section 11.7.

15.18E) ?When calculating [H3O+] for weak acid solutions, we can often use the x is small approximation. Explain the nature o...

15.15.22) Fill in the word acidic, basic, or neutral for the following solutions: (a) pOH . 7; solution is (b) pOH 5 7; solutio...

15.17E) ?In most solutions containing a strong or weak acid, the autoionization of water can be neglected when calculating [H...

15.19E) What is the percent ionization of an acid? Explain what happens to the percent ionization of a weak acid as a functio...

15.15.125) In the vapor phase, acetic acid molecules associate to a certain extent to form dimers: 2CH3COOH(g) (CH3COOH)2(g) At ...

15.20E) ?In calculating [\(H_{3} O^+\)] for a mixture of a strong acid and weak acid, the weak acid can often be neglected. E...

15.21E) ?Write a generic equation showing how a weak base ionizes Water.

15.15.74) Explain why small, highly charged metal ions are able to undergo hydrolysis

15.22E) ?How can you determine if an anion will act as a weak base? Write a generic equation showing the reaction by which an...

15.15.23) The pOH of a strong base solution is 1.88 at 25C. Calculate the concentration of the base (a) if the base is KOH and ...

15.23E) ?What is the relationship between the acid ionization constant for a weak acid \(\left(K_{\mathrm{a}}\right)\) and th...

15.24E) What kinds of cations act as weak acids? List some examples.

15.25E) ?When calculating the \(\left[\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]\) for a polyprotic acid, the second ionization ste...

15.15.126) Calculate the concentrations of all the species in a 0.100 M Na2CO3 solution.

15.26E) ?For a weak diprotic acid H2X, what is the relationship between [X2-] and Ka2 ? Under what conditions does this relat...

15.15.75) Al31 is not a Brnsted acid but Al(H2O)31 6 is. Explain

15.27E) For a binary acid. H — Y, which factors affect the relative ease with which the acid ionizes?

15.15.24) Calculate the number of moles of KOH in 5.50 mL of a 0.360 M KOH solution. What is the pOH of the solution?

15.28E) ?Which factors affect the relative acidity of an oxyacid?

15.29E) What is the Lewis definition of an acid? Of a base?

15.15.127) Henrys law constant for CO2 at 38C is 2.28 3 1023 mol/L ? atm. Calculate the pH of a solution of CO2 at 38C in equili...

15.30E) What is a general characteristic of a Lewis acid? Of a Lewis base?

15.31E) What is acid rain? What causes it and where is the problem the greatest?

15.15.76) Specify which of the following salts will undergo hydrolysis: KF, NaNO3, NH4NO2, MgSO4, KCN, C6H5COONa, RbI, Na2CO3, ...

15.32E) What are the main detrimental effects of acid rain? What is being done to address the problem of acid rain?

15.33E) ?Identify each substance as an acid or a base and write a chemical equation showing how it is an acid or a base accor...

15.34E) ?Identify each substance as an acid or a base and write a chemical equation showing how it is an acid or a base in aq...

15.15.128) Hydrocyanic acid (HCN) is a weak acid and a deadly poisonous compoundin the gaseous form (hydrogen cyanide) it is use...

15.36E) ?In each reaction, identify the Brønsted–Lowry acid, the Brønsted–Lowry base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate b...

15.15.25) How much NaOH (in grams) is needed to prepare 546 mL of solution with a pH of 10.00?

15.35E) ?In each reaction, identify the Brønsted–Lowry acid, the Brønsted– Lowry base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate ...

15.37E) ?Write the formula for the conjugate base of each acid. a. HCl b. H2SO3 c. HCHO2 d. HF

15.38E) ?Write the formula for the conjugate acid of each base. a. NH3 b. ClO4- c. HSO4- d. CO32-

15.39E) ?Both H2O and H2PO4- are amphoteric. Write an equation to show how each substance can act as an acid and another equa...

15.15.26) A solution is made by dissolving 18.4 g of HCl in 662 mL of water. Calculate the pH of the solution. (Assume that the...

15.15.77) Predict the pH (. 7, , 7, or < 7) of aqueous solutions containing the following salts: (a) KBr, (b) Al(NO3)3, (c) BaC...

15.40E) ?Both HCO3- and HS- are amphoteric. Write an equation to show how each substance can act as an acid and another equat...

15.15.129) How many grams of NaCN would you need to dissolve in enough water to make exactly 250 mL of solution with a pH of 10.00?

15.41E) ?Classify each acid as strong or weak. If the acid is weak, write an expression for the acid ionization constant (Ka)...

15.42E) ?Classify each acid as strong or weak. If the acid is weak, write an expression for the acid ionization constant (Ka)...

15.43E) ?The three diagrams represent three different solutions of the binary acid HA. Water molecules have been omitted for ...

15.15.27) Explain what is meant by the strength of an acid

15.44E) ?Rank the solutions in order of decreasing \(\left[\mathrm{H}_3 \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]\): \(0.10 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{HC...

15.15.78) Predict whether the following solutions are acidic, basic, or nearly neutral: (a) NaBr, (b) K2SO3, (c) NH4NO2, (d) Cr...

15.45E) ?Pick the stronger base from each pair. a. F- or Cl- b. NO2- or NO3- c. F- or ClO

15.15.13) A solution of formic acid (HCOOH) has a pH of 2.53. How many grams of formic acid are there in 100.0 mL of the solution?

15.46E) ?Pick the stronger base from each pair. a. ClO4- or ClO2- b. Cl- or H2O c. CN- or ClO

15.47E) ?Calculate [OH-] in each aqueous solution at 25 oC, and classify the solution as acidic or basic. a. [H3O+] = 1.2 x 1...

15.48E) ?Calculate [H3O+] in each aqueous solution at 25 oC, and classify each solution as acidic or basic. a. [OH-] = 1.1 x ...

15.49E) ?Calculate the pH and pOH of each solution. a. [H3O+] = 1.7 x 10-8 M b. [H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-7 M c. [H3O+] = 2.2 x 10-6 M

15.50E) ?Calculate [H3O+] and [OH-] for each solution. a. pH = 8.55 b. pH = 11.23 c. pH = 2.87

15.15.28) Without referring to the text, write the formulas of four strong acids and four weak acids.

15.15.79) A certain salt, MX (containing the M1 and X2 ions), is dissolved in water, and the pH of the resulting solution is 7....

15.15.131) Calculate the pH of a 1-L solution containing 0.150 mole of CH3COOH and 0.100 mole of HCl.

15.51E) ?Complete the table. (All solutions are at \(25\ ^{\circ}\mathrm{C}\).)

15.52E) ?Complete the table. (All solutions are at 25 oC.)

15.53E) ?Like all equilibrium constants, the value of Kw depends on temperature. At body temperature (37 oC) , Kw = 2.4 * 10-...

15.54E) ?The value of Kw increases with increasing temperature. Is the autoionization of water endothermic or exothermic?

15.15.8) In a certain experiment a student finds that the pHs of 0.10 M solutions of three potassium salts KX, KY, and KZ are ...

15.55E) ?Calculate the pH of each acid solution. Explain how the resulting pH values demonstrate that the pH of an acid solut...

15.15.132) A 1.87-g sample of Mg reacts with 80.0 mL of a HCl solution whose pH is 20.544. What is the pH of the solution after ...

15.56E) ?Determine the concentration of H3O+ to the correct number of significant figures in a solution with each pH. Describ...

15.57E) ?For each strong acid solution, determine [H3O+], [OH-], and pH. a. 0.25 M HCl b. 0.015 M HNO3 c. a solution that is ...

15.15.133) You are given two beakers, one containing an aqueous solution of strong acid (HA) and the other an aqueous solution o...

15.58E) ?Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.048 M HI b. 0.0895 M HClO4 c. a solution that is 0.045 M in HClO4 and 0.048 ...

15.59E) What mass of HI should be present in 0.250 L of solution to obtain a solution with each pH value?a. pH = 1.25b. pH = ...

15.15.3) H2SO4 is a strong acid, but HSO4 2 is a weak acid. Account for the difference in strength of these two related species.

15.60E) ?What mass of HClO4 should be present in 0.500 L of solution to obtain a solution with each pH value? a. pH = 2.50 b....

15.15.81) Calculate the pH of a 0.36 M CH3COONa solution.

15.61E) ?What is the pH of a solution in which 224 mL of HCl(g), measured at 27.2 oC and 1.02 atm, is dissolved in 1.5 L of a...

15.15.31) Which of the following diagrams best represents a strong acid, such as HCl, dissolved in water? Which represents a we...

15.62E) What volume of a concentrated HCI solution, which is 36.0% HCI by mass and has a density of 1.179 g/mL, should be use...

15.63E) ?Determine the [H3O+] and pH of a 0.100 M solution of benzoic acid.

15.15.82) Calculate the pH of a 0.42 M NH4Cl solution.

15.64E) ?Determine the [H3O+] and pH of a 0.200 M solution of formic acid.

15.15.134) Use Le Chteliers principle to predict the effect of the following changes on the extent of hydrolysis of sodium nitri...

15.65E) ?Determine the pH of an HNO2 solution of each concentration. In which cases can you not make the simplifying assumpti...

15.66E) Determine the pH of an HF solution of each concentration. In which cases can you not make the simplifying assumption ...

15.67E) ?If 15.0 mL of glacial acetic acid (pure HC2H3O2) is diluted to 1.50 L with water, what is the pH of the resulting so...

15.15.32) (1) Which of the following diagrams represents a solution of a weak diprotic acid? (2) Which diagrams represent chemi...

15.68E) Calculate the pH of a formic acid solution that contains 1.35% formic acid by mass. (Assume a density of 1.01 g/mL fo...

15.69E) ?A 0.185 M solution of a weak acid (HA) has a pH of 2.95. Calculate the acid ionization constant (Ka) for the acid.

15.70E) ?A 0.115 M solution of a weak acid (HA) has a pH of 3.29. Calculate the acid ionization constant (Ka) for the acid.

15.15.83) Predict the pH (. 7, , 7, < 7) of a NaHCO3 solution.

15.71E) Determine the percent ionization of a 0.125 M HCN solution.

15.15.33) Classify each of the following species as a weak or strong acid: (a) HNO3, (b) HF, (c) H2SO4, (d) HSO4 2, (e) H2CO3, ...

15.15.135) Describe the hydration of SO2 as a Lewis acid-base reaction. (Hint: Refer to the discussion of the hydration of CO2 o...

15.72E) ?Determine the percent ionization of a 0.225 M solution of benzoic acid.

15.73E) Calculate the percent ionization of an acetic acid solution having the given concentration,a. 1.00 Mb. 0.500 Mc. 0.10...

15.74E) Calculate the percent ionization of a formic acid solution having the given concentration.a. 1.00 Mb. 0.500 Mc. 0.100...

15.75E) ?A 0.148 M solution of a monoprotic acid has a percent ionization of 1.55%. Determine the acid ionization constant (K...

15.15.84) Predict whether a solution containing the salt K2HPO4 will be acidic, neutral, or basic.

15.76E) ?A 0.085 M solution of a monoprotic acid has a percent ionization of 0.59%. Determine the acid ionization constant (K...

15.15.34) Classify each of the following species as a weak or strong base: (a) LiOH, (b) CN2, (c) H2O, (d) ClO4 2, (e) NH2 2.

15.15.136) The disagreeable odor of fish is mainly due to organic compounds (RNH2) containing an amino group, NH2, where R is th...

15.77E) Find the pH and percent ionization of each HF solution.a. 0.250 M HFb. 0.100 M HFc. 0.050 M HF

15.15.85) Classify the following oxides as acidic, basic, amphoteric, or neutral: (a) CO2, (b) K2O, (c) CaO, (d) N2O5, (e) CO, ...

15.78E) ?Find the pH and percent ionization of a 0.100 M solution of a weak monoprotic acid having the given Ka values.a. Ka ...

15.79E) ?Find the pH of each mixture of acids. a. 0.115 M in HBr and 0.125 M in HCHO2 b. 0.150 M in HNO2 and 0.085 M in HNO3 ...

15.80E) ?Find the pH of each mixture of acids. a. 0.075 M in HNO3 and 0.175 M in HC7H5O2 b. 0.020 M in HBr and 0.015 M in HCl...

15.81E) ?For each strong base solution, determine \(\left[\mathrm{OH}^-\right],\ \left[\mathrm{H}_3\mathrm{O}^+\right]\), pH,...

15.15.35) Which of the following statements is/are true for a 0.10 M solution of a weak acid HA? (a) The pH is 1.00. (b) [H1] @...

15.15.137) A solution of methylamine (CH3NH2) has a pH of 10.64. How many grams of methylamine are there in 100.0 mL of the solu...

15.82E) ?For each strong base solution, determine [OH-], [H3O+], pH, and pOH. a. 8.77 x 10-3 M LiOH b. 0.0112 M Ba(OH)2 c. 1....

15.83E) ?Determine the \(\mathrm{pH}\) of a solution that is 3.85% \(\mathrm{KOH}\) by mass. Assume that the solution has den...

15.84E) Determine the pH of a solution that is 1.55% NaOH by mass. Assume that the solution has density of 1.01 g/mL.

15.85E) What volume of 0.855 M KOH solution is required to make 3.55 L of a solution with pH of 12.4?

15.15.86) Write equations for the reactions between (a) CO2 and NaOH(aq), (b) Na2O and HNO3(aq).

15.15.138) A 0.400 M formic acid (HCOOH) solution freezes at 20.758C. Calculate the Ka of the acid at that temperature. (Hint: A...

15.86E) What volume of a 15.0% by mass NaOH solution, which has a density of 1.116 g/mL, should be used to make 5.00 L of an ...

15.15.87) Explain why metal oxides tend to be basic if the oxidation number of the metal is low and acidic if the oxidation num...

15.87E) ?Write equations showing how each weak base ionizes water to form OH-. Also write the corresponding expression for Kb...

15.15.36) Which of the following statements is/are true regarding a 1.0 M solution of a strong acid HA? (a) [A2] . [H1] (b) The...

15.15.139) Both the amide ion (NH2 2) and the nitride ion (N32) are stronger bases than the hydroxide ion and hence do not exist...

15.88E) ?Write equations showing how each weak base ionizes water to form OH-. Also write the corresponding expression for Kb...

15.89E) ?Determine the [OH-], pH, and pOH of a 0.15 M ammonia solution.

15.90E) ?Determine the [OH-], pH, and pOH of a solution that is 0.125 M in CO32-.

15.91E) ?Caffeine \(\left(\mathrm{C}_8\mathrm{H}_{10}\mathrm{N}_4\mathrm{O}_2\right)\) is a weak base with a \(\mathrm{p} K_{...

15.15.37) Predict the direction that predominates in this reaction: F2(aq) 1 H2O(l) HF(aq) 1 OH2(aq)

15.92E) ?Amphetamine \(\left(\mathrm{C}_{9} \mathrm{H}_{13} \mathrm{N}\right)\) is a weak base with a \(\mathrm{p} K_{\mathrm...

15.93E) ?Morphine is a weak base. A 0.150 M solution of morphine has a pH of 10.5. What is Kb for morphine?

15.94E) ?A 0.135 M solution of a weak base has a pH of 11.23. Determine Kb for the base.

15.15.88) Arrange the oxides in each of the following groups in order of increasing basicity: (a) K2O, Al2O3, BaO, (b) CrO3, Cr...

15.95E) ?Determine if each anion acts as a weak base in solution. For those anions that are basic, write an equation that sho...

15.96E) ?Determine whether each anion is basic or neutral. For those anions that are basic, write an equation that shows how ...

15.15.38) Predict whether the following reaction will proceed from left to right to any measurable extent: CH3COOH(aq) 1 Cl2(aq)

15.15.14) The atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentration over a certain region is 0.12 ppm by volume. Calculate the pH of t...

15.97E) ?Determine the [OH-] and pH of a solution that is 0.140 M in F-.

15.98E) ?Determine the [OH-] and pH of a solution that is 0.250 M in HCO3-.

15.99E) ?Determine whether each cation is acidic or pH-neutral. For those cations that are acidic, write an equation that sho...

15.15.141) Calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] is used as a disinfectant for swimming pools. When dissolved in water it produces hyp...

15.100E) ?Determine whether each cation is acidic or pH-neutral. For those cations that are acidic, write an equation that sho...

15.15.89) Zn(OH)2 is an amphoteric hydroxide. Write balanced ionic equations to show its reaction with (a) HCl, (b) NaOH [the p...

15.101E) ?Determine if each salt will form a solution that is acidic, basic, or pH-neutral. a. FeCl3 b. NaF c. CaBr2 d. NH4Br ...

15.15.29) What does the ionization constant tell us about the strength of an acid?

15.15.9) ?Consider the molecular views of an Al strip and \(\mathrm{Cu}^{2+}\) solution. Draw a similar sketch showing what ha...

15.102E) ?Determine if each salt will form a solution that is acidic, basic, or pH-neutral. a. Al(NO3)3 b. C2H5NH3NO3 c. K2CO3...

15.103E) ?Arrange the solutions in order of increasing acidity.\(\mathrm{NaCl},\mathrm{\ NH}_4\mathrm{Cl},\mathrm{\ NaHCO}_3,\...

15.104E) ?Arrange the solutions in order of increasing basicity. CH3NH3Br, KOH, KBr, KCN, C5H5NHNO2

15.105E) ?Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.10 M NH4Cl b. 0.10 M NaC2H3O2 c. 0.10 M NaCl

15.106E) ?Determine the pH of each solution.a. \(0.20 \mathrm{M} \ \mathrm{KCHO}_{2}\)b. \(0.20 \mathrm{M} \ \mathrm{CH}_{3} \...

15.15.142) Explain the action of smelling salt, which is ammonium carbonate [(NH4)2CO3]. (Hint: The thin film of aqueous solutio...

15.107E) Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.15 M KF solution.

15.15.4) List the factors on which the Ka of a weak acid depends.

15.108E) ?Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.225 M C6H5NH3Cl solution.

15.109E) ?Write chemical equations and corresponding equilibrium expressions for each of the three ionization steps of phospho...

15.15.91) What are the Lewis definitions of an acid and a base? In what way are they more general than the Brnsted definitions?

15.110E) Write chemical equations and corresponding equilibrium expressions for each of the two ionization steps of carbonic a...

15.111E) ?Calculate the [H3O+] and pH of each polyprotic acid solution. a. 0.350 M H3PO4 b. 0.350 M H2C2O4

15.15.143) About half of the hydrochloric acid produced annually in the United States (3.0 billion pounds) is used in metal pick...

15.112E) ?Calculate the [H3O+] and pH of each polyprotic acid solution. a. 0.125 M H2CO3 b. 0.125 M H3C6H5O7

15.15.92) In terms of orbitals and electron arrangements, what must be present for a molecule or an ion to act as a Lewis acid ...

15.113E) ?Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.500 M solution of H2SO3.

15.15.144) Which of the following does not represent a Lewis acid-base reaction? (a) H2O 1 H1 H3O1 (b) NH3 1 BF3 H3NBF3 (c) PF3 ...

15.114E) ?Calculate the concentration of all species in a 0.155 M solution of H2CO3.

15.15.41) Why do we normally not quote Ka values for strong acids such as HCl and HNO3? Why is it necessary to specify temperat...

15.15.145) True or false? If false, explain why the statement is wrong. (a) All Lewis acids are Brnsted acids, (b) the conjugate...

15.115E) ?Calculate the [H3O+] and pH of each H2SO4 solution. At approximately what concentration does the x is small approxim...

15.116E) ?Consider a 0.10 M solution of a weak polyprotic acid (H2A) with the possible values of Ka1 and Ka2 given here. a. Ka...

15.117E) ?Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from each pair of binary acids. Explain your choice. a. H...

15.15.93) Classify each of the following species as a Lewis acid or a Lewis base: (a) CO2, (b) H2O, (c) I2, (d) SO2, (e) NH3, (...

15.118E) ?Based on molecular structure, arrange the binary compounds in order of increasing acid strength. Explain your choice...

15.119E) ?Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from each pair of oxyacids. Explain your choice. a. H2SO4...

15.120E) ?Based on molecular structure, arrange the oxyacids in order of increasing acid strength. Explain your choice.\(\math...

15.15.42) Which of the following solutions has the highest pH? (a) 0.40 M HCOOH, (b) 0.40 M HClO4, (c) 0.40 M CH3COOH.

15.15.146) How many milliliters of a strong monoprotic acid solution at pH 5 4.12 must be added to 528 mL of the same acid solut...

15.121E) ?Which is a stronger base, S2- or Se2-? Explain.

15.122E) ?Which is a stronger base, PO43- or AsO43-? Explain.

15.123E) ?Classify each species as either a Lewis acid or a Lewis base. a. Fe3+ b. BH3 c. NH3 d. F-

15.15.94) Describe the following reaction in terms of the Lewis theory of acids and bases: AlCl3(s) 1 CI2(aq) AlCl2 4 (aq)

15.124E) ?Classify each species as either a Lewis acid or a Lewis base. a. BeCl2 b. OH-c. B(OH)3 d. CN-

15.15.147) Calculate the pH and percent ionization of a 0.80 M HNO2 solution.

15.125E) ?Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base from among the reactants in each equation.(a) \(\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}(a q)+6 \math...

15.15.43) The Ka for benzoic acid is 6.5 3 1025 . Calculate the pH of a 0.10 M benzoic acid solution.

15.126E) ?Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base from among the reactants in each equation.

15.127E) ?Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured acid is weak or strong.

15.128E) ?Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured base is weak or strong.

15.129E) ?The binding of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood involves the equilibrium reaction: In this equation, Hb is hemoglob...

15.15.95) Which would be considered a stronger Lewis acid: (a) BF3 or BCl3, (b) Fe21 or Fe31? Explain.

15.130E) ?Carbon dioxide dissolves in water according to the equations: Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have increased...

15.15.44) A 0.0560-g quantity of acetic acid is dissolved in enough water to make 50.0 mL of solution. Calculate the concentrat...

15.15.148) Consider the two weak acids HX (molar mass 5 180 g/mol) and HY (molar mass 5 78.0 g/mol). If a solution of 16.9 g/L o...

15.131E) ?People often take milk of magnesia to reduce the discomfort associated with acid stomach or heartburn. The recommend...

15.132E) ?Lakes that have been acidified by acid rain can be neutralized by liming, the addition of limestone (CaCO3). How muc...

15.133E) ?Acid rain over the Great Lakes has a pH of about 4.5. Calculate the \(\left[\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]\) o...

15.15.45) The pH of an acid solution is 6.20. Calculate the Ka for the acid. The initial acid concentration is 0.010 M.

15.134E) ?White wines tend to be more acidic than red wines. Find the [H3O+] in a Sauvignon Blanc with a pH of 3.23 and a Cabe...

15.15.96) All Brnsted acids are Lewis acids, but the reverse is not true. Give two examples of Lewis acids that are not Brnsted...

15.136E) ?The AIDS drug zalcitabine (also known as ddC) is a weak base with the structure shown here and a pKb of 9.8. What pe...

15.15.149) Hemoglobin (Hb) is a blood protein that is responsible for transporting oxygen. It can exist in the protonated form a...

15.135E) ?Common aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid, which has the structure shown here and a pKa of 3.5. Calculate the pH of a s...

15.137E) ?Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.0100 M HClO4 b. 0.115 M HClO2 c. 0.045 M Sr(OH)2 d. 0.0852 M KCN e. 0.155 M ...

15.139E) ?Determine the pH of each two-component solution.a. 0.0550 M in HI and 0.00850 M in HFb. 0.112 M in NaCl and 0.0953 M...

15.15.97) Determine the concentration of a NaNO2 solution that has a pH of 8.22

15.138E) ?Determine the pH of each solution. a. 0.0650 M HNO3 b. 0.150 M HNO2 c. 0.0195 M KOH d. 0.245 M CH3NH3I e. 0.318 M KC...

15.15.15) A 1.294-g sample of a metal carbonate (MCO3) is reacted with 500 mL of a 0.100 M HCl solution. The excess HCl acid is...

15.140E) ?Determine the pH of each two-component solution. a. 0.050 M KOH and 0.015 M Ba(OH)2 b. 0.265 M NH4NO3 and 0.102 M HC...

15.15.46) What is the original molarity of a solution of formic acid (HCOOH) whose pH is 3.26 at equilibrium?

15.141E) Write net ionic equations for the reactions that take place when aqueous solutions of the following substances are mi...

15.142E) ?Morphine has the formula C17H19NO3. It is a base and accepts one proton per molecule. It is isolated from opium. A 0...

15.15.98) Determine the concentration of a NH4Cl solution that has a pH of 5.64.

15.143E) ?The pH of a 1.00 M solution of urea, a weak organic base, is 7.050. Calculate the Ka of protonated urea.

15.144E) A solution is prepared by dissolving 0.10 mol of acetic acid and 0.10 mol of ammonium chloride in enough water to mak...

15.15.47) Calculate the percent ionization of benzoic acid having the following concentrations: (a) 0.20 M, (b) 0.00020 M.

15.145E) ?Lactic acid is a weak acid found in milk. Its calcium salt is a source of calcium for growing animals. A saturated s...

15.146E) ?A solution of 0.23 mol of the chloride salt of protonated quinine (QH+), a weak organic base, in 1.0 L of solution h...

15.15.51) Prove the statement that when the concentration of a weak acid HA decreases by a factor of 10, its percent ionization...

15.147E) ?A student mistakenly calculates the pH of a 1.0 x 10-7 M HI solution to be 7.0. Explain why the student is incorrect...

15.15.48) Calculate the percent ionization of hydrofluoric acid at the following concentrations: (a) 0.60 M, (b) 0.0046 M, (c) ...

15.15.99) The diagrams here show three weak acids HA (A 5 X, Y, or Z) in solution. (a) Arrange the acids in order of increasing...

15.148E) ?When 2.55 g of an unknown weak acid (HA) with a molar mass of 85.0 g/mol is dissolved in 250.0 g of water, the freez...

15.149E) ?Calculate the pH of a solution that is 0.00115 M in HCl and 0.0100 M in HClO2.

15.150E) ?To what volume should you dilute 1 L of a solution of a weak acid HA to reduce the [H+] to one-half of that in the o...

15.152E) ?Basicity in the gas phase can be defined as the proton affinity of the base, for example, \(\mathrm{CH}_3\mathrm{NH}...

15.151E) ?HA, a weak acid, with Ka = 1.0 x 10-8, also forms the ion HA2-. The reaction is HA(aq) + A-(aq) ? HA2-(aq) and its K...

15.153E) ?Calculate the pH of a solution prepared from 0.200 mol of NH4CN and enough water to make 1.00 L of solution.

15.15.49) A 0.040 M solution of a monoprotic acid is 14 percent ionized. Calculate the ionization constant of the acid.

15.15.52) Calculate the pH of a solution that is 1.00 M HCN and 1.00 M HF. Compare the concentration (in molarity) of the CN2 i...

15.154E) ?To 1.0 L of a 0.30 M solution of HClO2 is added 0.20 mol of NaF. Calculate the [HClO2] at equilibrium.

15.15.53) Teeth enamel is hydroxyapatite [Ca3(PO4)3OH]. When it dissolves in water (a process called demineralization), it diss...

15.155E) ?A mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 has a mass of 82.2 g. It is dissolved in 1.00 L of water and the pH is found to be 9....

15.15.1) A typical reaction between an antacid and the hydrochloric acid in gastric juice is NaHCO3(s) 1 HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) 1 H2...

15.156E) ?A mixture of NaCN and NaHSO4 consists of a total of 0.60 mol. When the mixture is dissolved in 1.0 L of water and co...

15.157E) ?Without doing any calculations, determine which solution in each pair is more acidic. a. 0.0100 M in HCl and 0.0100 ...

15.15.5) (a) Calculate the percent ionization of a 0.20 M solution of the monoprotic acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) for which ...

15.158E) ?Without doing any calculations, determine which solution in each pair is more basic. a. 0.100 M in NaClO and 0.100 M...

15.159E) ?Rank the acids in order of increasing acid strength. CH3COOH CH2ClCOOH CHCl2COOH CCl3COOH

15.15.54) Use the vant Hoff equation (see 14.119) and the data in Appendix 3 to calculate the pH of water at its normal boiling...

15.15.101) To which of the following would the addition of an equal volume of 0.60 M NaOH lead to a solution having a lower pH? ...

15.15.55) At 28C and 0.982 atm, gaseous compound HA has a density of 1.16 g/L. A quantity of 2.03 g of this compound is dissolv...

15.15.102) The pH of a 0.0642 M solution of a monoprotic acid is 3.86. Is this a strong acid?

15.15.103) Like water, liquid ammonia undergoes autoionization: NH3 1 NH3 NH1 4 1 NH2 2 (a) Identify the Brnsted acids and Brnst...

15.15.56) A 10.0-g sample of white phosphorus was burned in an excess of oxygen. The product was dissolved in enough water to m...

15.15.104) HA and HB are both weak acids although HB is the stronger of the two. Will it take a larger volume of a 0.10 M NaOH s...

15.15.57) Calculate the pH of a 0.20 M NaHCO3 solution. (Hint: As an approximation, calculate hydrolysis and ionization separat...

15.15.105) A solution contains a weak monoprotic acid HA and its sodium salt NaA both at 0.1 M concentration. Show that [OH2] 5 ...

15.15.58) (a) Shown here is a solution containing hydroxide ions and hydronium ions. What is the pH of the solution? (b) How ma...

15.15.106) The three common chromium oxides are CrO, Cr2O3, and CrO3. If Cr2O3 is amphoteric, what can you say about the acid-ba...

15.15.59) In this chapter, HCl, HBr, and HI are all listed as strong acids because they are assumed to be ionized completely in...

15.15.107) Use the data in Table 15.3 to calculate the equilibrium constant for the following reaction: HCOOH(aq) 1 OH2(aq) HCOO...

15.15.6) Use the data in Appendix 3 to calculate the Hrxn for the following reactions: (a) NaOH(aq) 1 HCl(aq) S NaCl(aq) 1 H2O...

15.15.108) Use the data in Table 15.3 to calculate the equilibrium constant for the following reaction: CH3COOH(aq) 1 NO2 2 (aq)...

15.15.61) Malonic acid [CH2(COOH)2] is a diprotic acid. Compare its two Ka values with that of acetic acid (CH3COOH) (Ka ), and...

Summary of Chapter 15: Acids and Bases

Chapter 15: Acids and Bases includes 308 full step-by-step solutions. Since 308 problems in chapter 15: Acids and Bases have been answered, more than 1390065 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chemistry: A Molecular Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321809247. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, edition: 3.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • activation energy (Ea).

    The minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. (13.4)

  • atomic number (Z).

    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (2.3)

  • battery

    A self-contained electrochemical power source that contains one or more voltaic cells. (Section 20.7)

  • carbide

    A binary compound of carbon with a metal or metalloid. (Section 22.9)

  • dipole-dipole interactions

    Theresulting net attraction between two dipoles.

  • E2

    A bimolecular b-elimination reaction.

  • energy

    The capacity to do work or to transfer heat. (Section 5.1)

  • Energy diagram

    A graph showing the changes in energy that occur during a chemical reaction; energy is plotted on the vertical axis, and reaction progress is plotted on the horizontal axis. Also called a reaction coordinate diagram

  • Epoxide

    A cyclic ether in which oxygen is one atom of a three-membered ring

  • fragmentation

    In mass spectrometry, when the molecular ion breaks apart into fragments.

  • Ka

    A measure of the strength of an acid: Ka = Keq 3H2O4 = 3H3O+ 4 3A- 4 3HA4

  • nucleophilic acyl substitution

    A reaction in which a nucleophile attacks a carboxylic acid derivative.

  • Organometallic compound

    A compound that contains a carbon-metal bond.

  • overall reaction order

    The sum of the reaction orders of all the reactants appearing in the rate expression when the rate can be expressed as rate = k3A4a 3B4b... . (Section 14.3)

  • primitive lattice

    A crystal lattice in which the lattice points are located only at the corners of each unit cell. (Section 12.2)

  • reaction quotient (Q)

    The value that is obtained when concentrations of reactants and products are inserted into the equilibrium expression. If the concentrations are equilibrium concentrations, Q = K; otherwise, Q ? K. (Section 15.6)

  • spin magnetic quantum number 1ms2

    A quantum number associated with the electron spin; it may have values of +12 or -12. (Section 6.7)

  • spontaneous

    A reaction with a negative DG, which means that products are favored at equilibrium.

  • Stereochemistry

    The study of three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in molecules

  • Ylide

    A neutral molecule with positive and negative charges on adjacent atoms

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