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Solutions for Chapter 3.3SE: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 3rd Edition
Full solutions for Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition
A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value. (Section 1.5)
A resonance-stabilized cation with the structure [RC"O]1 or [ArC"O]1. The positive charge is delocalized over both the carbonyl carbon and the carbonyl oxygen.
An organic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group 1¬OH2 for a hydrogen on a hydrocarbon. (Sections 2.9 and 24.4)
aldol addition reaction
A reaction that occurs when an aldehyde or ketone is attacked by an enolate ion. The product of an aldol addition reaction is always a b-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone.
atomic number (Z).
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (2.3)
An array of closely spaced molecular orbitals occupying a discrete range of energy. (Section 12.4)
The energy gap between a fully occupied band called a valence band and an empty band called the conduction band. (Section 12.7)
A solid that possesses rigid and long-range order; its atoms, molecules, or ions occupy specific positions. (11.4)
An anion derived by loss of a hydrogen from a carbon alpha to a carbonyl group; the anion of an enol.
first law of thermodynamics
A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)
The unit in which frequency is measured: s 21 (read “per second”).
Hückel criteria for aromaticity
To be aromatic, a monocyclic compound must have one 2p orbital on each atom of the ring, be planar or nearly so, and have (4n 1 2) p electrons in the cyclic arrangement of 2p orbitals
Compounds formed between two different halogen elements. Examples include IBr and BrF3. (Section 22.4)
Protons that are exchanged at a rapid rate.
On an aromatic ring, the C2 position.
Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol
root-mean-square (rms) speed 1M2
The square root of the average of the squared speeds of the gas molecules in a gas sample. (Section 10.7)
solubility-product constant (solubility product)1Ksp2
An equilibrium constant related to the equilibrium between a solid salt and its ions in solution. It provides a quantitative measure of the solubility of a slightly soluble salt. (Section 17.4)
An interaction in which nuclear spins of adjacent atoms infl uence each other and lead to the spitting of NMR signals.
Lipids that are based on a tetracyclic ring system involving three six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. Cholesterol is an example.
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