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Textbooks / Chemistry / Sapling Learning Homework for General Chemistry (Single-Course Access)

Sapling Learning Homework for General Chemistry (Single-Course Access) Solutions

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ISBN: 9781319080266

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Textbook: Sapling Learning Homework for General Chemistry (Single-Course Access)
Edition:
Author: Sapling Learning
ISBN: 9781319080266

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Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Activation energy

    The difference in Gibbs free energy between reactants and a transition state

  • alkenes.

    Hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. They have the general formula CnH2n, where n 5 2,3, . . . . (24.2)

  • Anabolic steroid

    A steroid hormone, such as testosterone, that promotes tissue and muscle growth and development

  • anti-periplanar

    A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of approximately 180°.

  • Cation

    An atom or group of atoms bearing a positive charge.

  • chemical formula.

    An expression showing the chemical composition of a compound in terms of the symbols for the atoms of the elements involved. (2.6)

  • diastereomers

    Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another.

  • Eclipsed conformation

    A conformation about a carboncarbon single bond in which the atoms or groups on one carbon are as close as possible to the atoms or groups on an adjacent carbon.

  • Endothermic reaction

    A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is higher than the enthalpy of the reactants; a reaction in which heat is absorbed

  • estrogens

    Female sex hormones.

  • Gibbs free energy change (DG°)

    The energy that dictates the position of chemical equilibria and rates of chemical reactions. A thermodynamic function of enthalpy, entropy, and temperature, given by the equation DG° 5 DH° 2 TDS°. If DG° , 0, the position of equilibria for the reaction favors products. If DG° . 0, the position of equilibria favors reactants.

  • hydrophobic

    A nonpolar group that does not have favorable interactions with water.

  • Infrared (IR) spectroscopy

    A spectroscopic technique in which a compound is irradiated with infrared radiation, absorption of which causes covalent bonds to change from a lower vibration state to a higher one. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly valuable for determining the kinds of functional groups present in a molecule.

  • Infrared active

    Any molecular vibration that leads to a substantial change in dipole moment and is observed in an IR spectrum.

  • precision

    The closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement. (Section 1.5)

  • reactant

    A starting substance in a chemical reaction; it appears to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation. (Section 3.1)

  • secondary

    A term used to indicate that exactly two alkyl groups are attached directly to a particular position. For example, a secondary carbocation has two alkyl groups attached directly to the electrophilic carbon atom (C+).

  • soluble

    A term used to indicate that a certain volume of a compound will dissolve in a specified amount of a liquid at room temperature.

  • Transesterifi cation

    Exchange of the !OR or !OAr group of an ester for another !OR or !OAr group.

  • Watson-Crick model

    A double-helix model for the secondary structure of a DNA molecule